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Stump Cross, 600m west of Sheviock Barton

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Stump Cross, 600m west of Sheviock Barton

List entry Number: 1010858

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Sheviock

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 24-Apr-1939

Date of most recent amendment: 04-Jan-1995

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 26235

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The Stump Cross has survived well. It forms a good example of the rather uncommon `Latin' cross type. Despite its minor relocation, it remains as a waymarker on its original route and junction, demonstrating well the major roles of such wayside crosses, the regional and local levels at which they functioned and the longevity of many routes still in use.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a medieval wayside cross, known as Stump Cross, and a protective margin around it, situated at the junction of the route east to the parish church at Sheviock with a former main route into Cornwall from the ferry across Plymouth Sound. The Stump Cross survives with an upright granite head and shaft set in a hexagonal base, the overall height of the cross being 2.43m. The cross head has unenclosed arms, a form called a `Latin' cross, its principal faces orientated to the north east and south west. The head and shaft stand 2.27m high above the base. The head measures 0.75m across the side arms; these and the upper limb are each 0.26m long and 0.22m wide. The upper and lower edges of the side arms and the edges of the upper limb have a 0.11m wide chamfer. The shaft is 0.34m wide and 0.16m thick, with a 0.14m wide chamfer on all edges. The chamfer ends 0.28m above the base. The shaft is set firmly in an hexagonal granite base measuring 1.29m north east-south west by 1.3m north west-south east and 0.16m high. The Stump Cross is situated high on the verge above the south east angle of a crossroads between the main route to the parish church from the west and the former main route into Cornwall from the crossing of Plymouth Sound. The latter route also led to the important medieval priory at St Germans, 2.75km to the NNW. The cross originally stood on a mound at the crossroads but it was moved to its present location on the verge in 1943 when the road was widened. When moved on that occasion, a 0.2m tenon was revealed at the base of the shaft. The strand of barbed wire fence above the south east of the cross base but within the area of the protective margin is excluded from the scheduling but the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896)
Other
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 6337,
consulted 1994, Cornwall SMR entry for PRN 6400,
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SX 25/35 Source Date: 1983 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SX 36292 55036

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1010858 .pdf

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End of official listing