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Wayside cross south of Hartcliff Road

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Wayside cross south of Hartcliff Road

List entry Number: 1012156

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Barnsley

District Type: Metropolitan Authority

Parish: Penistone

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 27-Feb-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27213

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The Hartcliff Road cross is a well preserved and visually impressive example of a wayside cross which is still in its original location and is associated with an ancient roadway.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is a late medieval or early post-medieval wayside cross and includes the socle or socket stone of the cross and the remains of the shaft. The upper portion of the shaft, which would have included an integral cross head, is now missing, possibly due to religious iconoclasm in the 16th or 17th century. The socle comprises a dressed gritstone block measuring approximately 1m x 90cm at the base and 48cm high. The top edge and upper corners of the socle are chamfered but the socle is otherwise undecorated. The gritstone shaft, which is currently mortared into the socket hole, is of tapering rectangular section with chamfered corners and is decorated at its base with narrow pyramidal stops on each corner. The shaft measures 40cm x 20cm at the base and survives to a height of 95cm. Originally, it would have been approximately 2m tall. The shaft is undecorated but includes several examples of 18th or 19th century graffiti. Towards the top on the south west face is an incised `T'. On the south east face are the possible beginnings of another `T' though this, in fact, may be the result of weathering. Near the base on the south east face are the initials `HA' while, close to the top on the north east face, are the poorly inscribed initials `GWP'. Lastly, on the north west face, roughly 30cm from the base, is an inverted cross. The cross is orientated north east to south west, parallel with Hartcliff Road. It lies approximately 30m south of the modern road yet appears to be in its original location. This suggests that the line of the road has changed and that the cross marks its earlier route. As the road originated as a packhorse route across open moorland, the change probably dates to the enclosure of the moor in c.1800. The cross is Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
Hill, Angela Shackleton, (1994)
South Yorkshire SMR: PI 332, Wayside Cross, Hartcliff Road,

National Grid Reference: SE 23400 02053

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1012156 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 21-Nov-2017 at 06:37:45.

End of official listing