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Cross in the churchyard of St Helen's Church

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Cross in the churchyard of St Helen's Church

List entry Number: 1012934

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Doncaster

District Type: Metropolitan Authority

Parish: Burghwallis

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 06-Sep-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27205

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Though missing its original cross head, the cross in St Helen's churchyard is a good example of a simple churchyard cross which appears to be in its original location. Its proximity to the church suggests that it played an important role in religious festivals during the Middle Ages though it may alternatively have had a sepulchral function.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument is located 3m south of St Helen's Church and includes the socle and shaft of a medieval churchyard cross together with a modern cross head. The socle or socket stone comprises a dressed octagonal sandstone block with rounded stops on alternate faces. It measures roughly 80cm square and 25cm high and includes a 30cm square socket hole. The 1.5m high sandstone shaft is square with chamfered corners and includes a pedestal and capital. It is currently fitted with a modern canopied cross head but this is believed to have replaced an 18th or 19th century sundial which, in turn, took the place of the missing medieval cross head. The existence of a sundial is indicated by the stone block placed at the foot of the cross on the north side to provide a step up to the sundial which would, otherwise, have been out of sight. The cross is Listed Grade II. The gravestones which lie within the area of the scheduling are not included in the scheduling. The surface of the modern path that falls within the area of the scheduling is excluded but the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
On EH file, Angela Shackleton Hill, Burghwallis churchyard cross, (1994)
South Yorkshire SMR, PI 297, Burghwallis churchyard cross,

National Grid Reference: SE 53693 12012

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1012934 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 24-Nov-2017 at 02:15:43.

End of official listing