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Wayside cross 120m south west of All Saints' Church

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Wayside cross 120m south west of All Saints' Church

List entry Number: 1013729

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Devon

District: Torridge

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Bradford

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 20-Dec-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27301

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The shaft of the wayside cross at Bradford is of ancient date and, although not in its original position, it is unlikely to have been moved far. The restoration of the head and arms is in keeping with the expected original type, preserving the overall octagonal cross section. Although the shape of the pedestal is likely to have originally been octagonal or square, its present circular form does not detract from the monument and continues to symbolise the original imposing stature of the cross, whilst also serving as a protection from damage by passing traffic.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

This monument includes a medieval wayside cross shaft with a restored head and arms, embedded in a 20th century pedestal, situated at the roadside beside a junction leading to the church in the village of Bradford. Although the cross is not precisely in its original position, it is likely to be close to it. The stone pedestal of the cross is circular with an overall diameter of 2m and height of 0.8m. This pedestal is partly built into the garden wall of a neighbouring cottage. Above the pedestal are two circular steps. Within the upper step an ancient cross shaft is embedded. The shaft measures 1.04m high and has a basal width of 0.3m which tapers upwards to a width of 0.23m. It is of octagonal section in common with many of Devon's wayside crosses, with a likely date of 14th to 15th century. Above is a restored head and arms with a height of 0.94m and a thickness of 0.23m. This is also of octagonal section. Excluded from the scheduling are the garden wall of Stone Cross Cottage, and the metalled road surface where this falls within the cross's protective margin, although the ground beneath the metalled road surface is included. The cross is Listed Grade II.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Masson Phillips, E, 'Devonshire Association Transactions' in The Ancient Stone Crosses of Devon : Part 1, , Vol. 69, (1936-37), 318
Other
Devon County Sites and Monuments Register, SX40NW-004,
MPP fieldwork by H. Gerrard, (1994)

National Grid Reference: SS 42004 07159

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1013729 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 18-Nov-2017 at 08:14:35.

End of official listing