Churchyard cross in St Bartholomew's churchyard
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
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This copy shows the entry on 26-May-2019 at 04:30:03.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Cotswold (District Authority)
- National Grid Reference:
Reasons for Designation
A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone,
mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD).
Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as
stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm
Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for
preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of
sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between
parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate
battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and
protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market
places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some
crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for
example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the
scenes of games or recreational activity.
Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have
numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation
has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and
religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by
iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval
standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The
oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft
often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the
stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a
flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th
centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may
take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more
elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped
crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding
stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the
most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the
stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also
uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the
13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and
cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base,
buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and
head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our
understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our
knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which
survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their
original location, are considered worthy of protection.
The churchyard cross at Winstone is believed to be in its original position. Despite the shaft being broken, the cross survives well as a visually impressive monument of the medieval period. Beyond the monument, around 30m to the south, south east and east of the cross are the earthworks of a deserted medieval village standing to 0.6m high. It contains one certain house platform and two other possible platforms.
The monument includes a standing cross situated in the churchyard at Winstone,
c.6m south of the church.
The cross has a square two step calvary, a socket stone, and shaft. The base
of the calvary is 2m square and 0.36m high with a moulding around the top;
above this the second step is 1.3m wide and 0.2m high. The square socket
stone, which has broached corners with its upper stage octagonal and grooved,
sits above this and is 0.7m wide and 0.55m high. The shaft, square at the
bottom with stopped chamfers, tapers to its broken end and becomes octagonal
in section, though is worn almost round by exposure to the weather. The socket
hole is 0.3m square and the shaft is c.1m high, broken at the top.
The calvary is constructed from stone blocks and slabs. The socket stone is
hewn from one piece of stone. The cross is considered to be 14th century.
The cross is Listed Grade II.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
Books and journals
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Gloucestershire: The Cotswolds, (1970), 481
Pooley, C, Notes on the Old Crosses of Gloucestershire, (1868), 56
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing