The socket stone and step of a churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard, Eastleach Turville

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1015213

Date first listed: 28-Jun-1996

Map

Ordnance survey map of The socket stone and step of a churchyard cross in St Andrew's churchyard, Eastleach Turville
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 18-Oct-2018 at 07:11:37.

Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Gloucestershire

District: Cotswold (District Authority)

Parish: Eastleach

National Grid Reference: SP 20202 05336

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Although most of the shaft of the cross in St Andrew's churchyard has gone, the step and socket stone mark the position of the churchyard cross.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the step and socket stone of a churchyard cross situated in the churchyard c.8m south of St Andrew's Church. The cross includes a step and socket stone with the base of the shaft embedded in the socket. The step, which has an obtuse drip, is 1.3m square and 0.1m high. Above this is the socket stone which is octagonal above with the alternate angles chamfered to a square. The base of the socket stone measures 0.7m across and has a total height of 0.4m. The sides of the octagonal measure 0.3m. A grooved tooling runs around the upper part of the stone. The socket for the shaft is 0.2m in diameter, and into it is mortised the base of the shaft which is broken flush with the top of the socket stone. The step is composed of blocks of stone. The socket stone is hewn from one piece of stone, and this and the step have been dated to the 15th century.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 28512

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
Pevsner, N, The Buildings of England: Gloucestershire: The Cotswolds, (1970), 233-4
Pooley, C, Notes on the Old Crosses of Gloucestershire, (1868), 13-14

End of official listing