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Roman camp on Clifton Moor, 275m NNE of Moor Farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Roman camp on Clifton Moor, 275m NNE of Moor Farm

List entry Number: 1019859

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: York

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Clifton Without

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 17-May-1963

Date of most recent amendment: 06-Mar-2001

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 30152

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Roman camps are rectangular or sub-rectangular enclosures which were constructed and used by Roman soldiers either when out on campaign or as practice camps; most campaign camps were only temporary overnight bases and few were used for longer periods. They were bounded by a single earthen rampart and outer ditch and in plan are always straight-sided with rounded corners. Normally they have between one and four entrances, although as many as eleven have been recorded. Such entrances were usually centrally placed in the sides of the camp and were often protected by additional defensive outworks. Roman camps are found throughout much of England, although most known examples lie in the midlands and north. Around 140 examples have been identified and, as one of the various types of defensive enclosure built by the Roman Army, particularly in hostile upland and frontier areas, they provide an important insight into Roman military strategy and organisation. All well-preserved examples are identified as being of national importance.

Whilst the Roman camp on Clifton Moor, 275m NNE of Moor Farm is barely identifiable above ground, archaeological investigations immediately to the north of the area of protection have confirmed that the Roman camp retains archaeological information that will add to the understanding of such monuments. The camp's importance is further enhanced by the survival of a second camp 250m to the east, and by their proximity to the Roman fortress at York, one of the main centres of Roman Britain. It is also one of only two of an original group of up to eight camps to survive.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the buried and earthwork remains of the southern part of a Roman army camp. A second camp, centred about 250m to the east, is the subject of a separate scheduling. The camp is one of a group of up to eight camps noted in the area by 18th century antiquarians and lies about 2.5km north of the site of Eburacum, the Roman legionary fortress at York. The camp lies on level but low lying ground and, because of their proximity to the fortress, the group have been interpreted as practice camps for the Roman army. Originally a rectangular `playing card' shape orientated north west to south east, the camp was defined by an earthen bank and external `V'-shaped ditch. Only the southern part of the camp remains identifiable; the north western half was disturbed and obscured by the construction of the World War II airfield. The Roman camp has been surveyed by the Royal Commission on the Historical Monuments of England, and areas to the north of the protected area have been investigated archaeologically in advance of redevelopment. The known remaining part of the Roman camp measures approximately 120m south west to north east and extended at least the same distance to the north west. The outer scarp of the bank can be seen within the southern field as a slight break of slope; to the north it has been levelled. Single gates similar to those of the camp to the east have been identified on all but the north western side of the camp. If viewed from the centre of the camp, the bank on the left side of the break forming the gateway is continued inwards to form a curved bank or clavicula, the end of which lies opposite the end of the bank on the right hand side. These gates are one of a number of designs employed by the Roman army to make their camps more defensible in the event of a surprise attack. Excavations immediately to the north of the protected area, showed that the `V'-shaped external ditch measuring up to 0.7m deep, together with number of post holes, survive as archaeological features. These post holes are considered to be the remains of various temporary structures erected by Roman soldiers in the interior of the camp. All fence posts within the constraint area are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 15 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Welfare, H, Swan, V, Roman Camps in England: The Field Evidence, (1995), Indexed
Other
MAP Archaeological Consultancy, Archaeological Excavations at Clifton Moorgate, York, 1994, Typescript report

National Grid Reference: SE 59643 54835

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1019859 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 10:16:13.

End of official listing