Round 280m south west of Trebowland

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1020102

Date first listed: 06-Nov-1929

Date of most recent amendment: 18-Sep-2001

Map

Ordnance survey map of Round 280m south west of Trebowland
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2018. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Cornwall (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Gwennap

National Grid Reference: SW 72924 38749

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Rounds are small embanked enclosures, one of a range of settlement types dating to between the later Iron Age and the early post-Roman period. Usually circular or oval, they have a single earth and rubble bank and an outer ditch, with one entrance breaking the circuit. Excavations have produced drystone supporting walls within the bank, paved or cobbled entrance ways, post built gate structures, and remains of timber, turf or stone built houses of oval or rectangular plan, often set around the inner edge of the enclosing bank. Other evidence includes hearths, drains, gullies, pits and rubbish middens. Evidence for industrial activities has been recovered from some sites, including small scale metal working and, among the domestic debris, items traded from distant sources. Some rounds are associated with secondary enclosures, either abutting the round as an annexe or forming an additional enclosure. Rounds are viewed primarily as agricultural settlements, the equivalents of farming hamlets. They were replaced by unenclosed settlement types by the 7th century AD. Over 750 rounds are recorded in the British Isles, occurring in areas bordering the Irish Seas, but confined in England to south west Devon and especially Cornwall, where many more examples may await discovery. Most recorded examples are sited on hillslopes and spurs. Rounds are important as one of the major sources of information on settlement and social organisation of the Iron Age and Roman periods in south west England. Consequently, sites with significant surviving remains will normally be considered to be of national importance.

The round 280m south west of Trebowland survives well. Despite partial reduction and limited modification of the earthworks, these remain substantially intact. The underlying old land surface, and remains of any buildings, structures, and other deposits associated with this and with the upstanding earthworks and ditch, will survive. The association with post- medieval inter-parish games illustrates one form of reuse of this monument type.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a later prehistoric to Romano-British round, reused for hurling matches in the post-medieval period, and situated on level ground on top of a prominent ridge south east of Lanner. The round is sub-circular in plan, measuring approximately 94m across overall. Around the west side, it has an enclosing bank 7.3m wide and 1.2m high inside, 1.8m-2.1m high outside, with a dip 4.5m wide and up to 0.2m deep at the edge of the interior within it, and an external ditch 4m wide and averaging 1m deep. On the south side, the bank's outer face has a post-medieval type stone revetment, and the external ditch beyond this is modified to form a trackway. On the east side, the earthworks are visible as a scarp approximately 6.6m wide and 0.9m high, with a slight depression some 3.5m wide beyond. The bank material, exposed in places on the west side, is earth and stone. The interior is generally level. A literary source from 1845 provides evidence for the round's reuse for inter-village hurling matches. The modern trackway surface, water tank, telegraph pole and wires, fencing, and dumped stone are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 32945

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
James, C C , A History of the Parish of Gwennap in Cornwall118-120
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 29, 52
Page, W, The Victoria History of the County of Cornwall: Volume I, (1906), 464
Tangye, M, 'Cornwall Archaeological Society Newsletter' in Trebowland Round, Gwennap, , Vol. 6, (1971), 5
Other
Henderson, C, OW819, (1929)
SW 73 NW 1, Fletcher, MJ, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1971)
Title: A Geological and Mining Map of the parish of Gwennap Source Date: 1845 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: CRO ME 2455
Title: Cornwall Mapping Project Source Date: 2000 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Gwennap Tithe Apportionment Source Date: 1840 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: 2652
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1880 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1907 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Ordnance Survey 2" drawing Source Date: 1809 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

End of official listing