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Kilvington medieval settlement and part of an open field system, 400m south west of Staunton Hall

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Kilvington medieval settlement and part of an open field system, 400m south west of Staunton Hall

List entry Number: 1020647

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Nottinghamshire

District: Newark and Sherwood

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Kilvington

County: Nottinghamshire

District: Newark and Sherwood

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Staunton

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 03-Sep-2002

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 29997

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Medieval rural settlements in England were marked by great regional diversity in form, size and type, and the protection of their archaeological remains needs to take these differences into account. To do this, England has been divided into three broad Provinces on the basis of each area's distinctive mixture of nucleated and dispersed settlements. These can be further divided into sub-Provinces and local regions, possessing characteristics which have gradually evolved during the last 1500 years or more. This monument lies in the Trent sub-Province of the Central Province, where the broad Trent valley swings in a great arc across midland England. Underlain by heavy clays, it is given variety by superficial glacial and alluvial deposits. Although treated as a single sub-Province, it has many subtle variations. Generally, it is characterised by a great number of villages and hamlets which cluster thickly along scarp-foot and scarp-tail zones, locations suitable for exploiting the contrasting terrains. Throughout the sub-Province there are very low and extremely low densities of dispersed farmsteads, some of which are ancient, but most of which are 18th-century and later movement of farms out of earlier villages.

Medieval villages were organised agricultural communities, sited at the centre of a parish or township, that shared resources such as arable land, meadow and woodland. Village plans varied enormously, but when they survive as earthworks their most distinguishing features include roads and minor tracks, platforms on which stood houses and other buildings such as barns, enclosed crofts and small enclosed paddocks. They frequently include the parish church within their boundaries, and as part of the manorial system most villages include one or more manorial centres which may also survive as visible remains as well as below ground deposits. In the central province of England, villages were the most distinctive aspect of medieval life, and their archaeological remains are one of the most important sources of understanding about rural life in the five or more centuries following the Norman Conquest.

Medieval villages were supported by a communal system of agriculture based on large, unenclosed open arable fields. These large fields were subdivided into strips (known as lands) which were allocated to individual tenants. The cultivation of these strips with heavy ploughs pulled by oxen-teams produced long, wide ridges and the resultant `ridge and furrow' where it survives is the most obvious physical indication of the open field system. Individual strips or lands were laid out in groups known as furlongs defined by terminal headlands at the plough turning-points and lateral grass baulks. Furlongs were in turn grouped into large open fields. Well- preserved ridge and furrow, especially in its original context adjacent to village earthworks, is both an important source of information about medieval agrarian life and a distinctive contribution to the character of the historic landscape. It is usually now covered by the hedges or walls of subsequent field enclosure.

The earthwork and buried remains of the abandoned areas of Kilvington medieval settlement are well-preserved and retain significant archaeological remains. The earthworks and aerial photographic records indicate the layout of the settlement, whilst old maps provide a clue to the interpretation of the site.

As a whole, the medieval settlement of Kilvington will add to our knowledge and understanding of the development and subsequent abandonment of medieval settlement in the area and its position in the wider landscape.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the earthwork and buried remains of the abandoned areas of Kilvington medieval settlement and part of the associated open field system. The site is situated on a terrace and north east facing slope 200m north east of St Mary's Church, Kilvington.

Kilvington is first mentioned in the Domesday Survey of 1086, where it is documented that there were two manors, one held by Ilbert de Laci and the other by Hugh, the son of Baldric. The existing church of Saint Mary was built on the site of the medieval church.

The monument survives as a series of earthwork and buried remains. On the top of the terrace, close to the south western edge of the monument, a series of low banks define at least two sub-rectangular features. These are interpreted as the site of medieval buildings with the low banks representing the buried remains of walls. The southernmost building appears from the earthworks and aerial photographs to be apsidal at its eastern end. The banks survive to a height of approximately 0.5m.

To the south of the apsidal building and running roughly north east to south west across the monument, is a wide gully. This survives to a depth of approximately 0.75m and is interpreted as a sunken track. Close to the south western edge of the monument the trackway opens out and appears to divide, with one section curving to the west towards St Mary's Church and the other continuing to the south west parallel to the existing field boundary. At its north eastern end the trackway leads to another wide gully. This gully meanders across the monument roughly north to south and represents an old water course which marks the parish boundary between Kilvington and Staunton. A map of 1842 shows a mill situated approximately 100m east of the monument, and it is possible the watercourse was changed as part of the water management system for the mill. At the junction between the trackway and the old water course is another series of earthworks. These are more irregular and difficult to define on the ground and suggest that the area has been affected by post-medieval quarrying or flooding. Included in this area is a sub-circular mound standing to a height of approximately 1m which may be related to either water management works or quarrying activity.

Another gully, interpreted as a sunken track, runs approximately 100m north of and parallel to that described above. This trackway also leads to the old water course at its eastern end. Between the two trackways the sloping ground contains a few slight earthworks, but was probably used as pasture during the medieval period.

Adjacent to the south eastern boundary of the monument and approximately 100m from the southernmost corner, a series of low banks define a terraced rectangular feature. This is interpreted as the site of another medieval building with the low banks representing the buried remains of walls. It would appear that further earthworks in this area have been distorted by later quarrying activity.

To the north east and west of this building platform, to the north of the northernmost trackway and to the east of the old water channel, are the remains of part of the medieval open field system. These are visible as part of at least four furlongs (groups of lands or cultivation strips) marked by headlands. The cultivation strips collectively form ridge and furrow and survive to a height of at least 0.5m.

On a Tithe Map of 1850 the field containing the monument was known as Farr Butt Close and Fishers Homestead. Although no buildings were shown to have survived in the area, in the mid-19th century the name of the field implies that at least one of the building platforms that survive today as earthworks may represent the site of the Fishers Homestead.

All fences and gates are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath these features is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Page, W (ed), The Victoria History of the County of Nottinghamshire, (1970), 282-283
Other
NGR index no. 8043/2, Pickering Collection, JAP 935/4A and JAP 935/5A,
Title: Tithe Awards, Kilvington Source Date: 1850 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: Notts Archive No. AT 68/1a

National Grid Reference: SK8023443113

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1020647 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 17-Nov-2017 at 07:39:28.

End of official listing