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Lanherne Cross, standing cross in the grounds of the convent, Lanherne

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Lanherne Cross, standing cross in the grounds of the convent, Lanherne

List entry Number: 1020866

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Mawgan-in-Pydar

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 26-Nov-1928

Date of most recent amendment: 28-Jan-2003

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 32971

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A standing cross is a free standing upright structure, usually of stone, mostly erected during the medieval period (mid 10th to mid 16th centuries AD). Standing crosses served a variety of functions. In churchyards they served as stations for outdoor processions, particularly in the observance of Palm Sunday. Elsewhere, standing crosses were used within settlements as places for preaching, public proclamation and penance, as well as defining rights of sanctuary. Standing crosses were also employed to mark boundaries between parishes, property, or settlements. A few crosses were erected to commemorate battles. Some crosses were linked to particular saints, whose support and protection their presence would have helped to invoke. Crosses in market places may have helped to validate transactions. After the Reformation, some crosses continued in use as foci for municipal or borough ceremonies, for example as places for official proclamations and announcements; some were the scenes of games or recreational activity. Standing crosses were distributed throughout England and are thought to have numbered in excess of 12,000. However, their survival since the Reformation has been variable, being much affected by local conditions, attitudes and religious sentiment. In particular, many cross-heads were destroyed by iconoclasts during the 16th and 17th centuries. Less than 2,000 medieval standing crosses, with or without cross-heads, are now thought to exist. The oldest and most basic form of standing cross is the monolith, a stone shaft often set directly in the ground without a base. The most common form is the stepped cross, in which the shaft is set in a socket stone and raised upon a flight of steps; this type of cross remained current from the 11th to 12th centuries until after the Reformation. Where the cross-head survives it may take a variety of forms, from a lantern-like structure to a crucifix; the more elaborate examples date from the 15th century. Much less common than stepped crosses are spire-shaped crosses, often composed of three or four receding stages with elaborate architectural decoration and/or sculptured figures; the most famous of these include the Eleanor crosses, erected by Edward I at the stopping places of the funeral cortege of his wife, who died in 1290. Also uncommon are the preaching crosses which were built in public places from the 13th century, typically in the cemeteries of religious communities and cathedrals, market places and wide thoroughfares; they include a stepped base, buttresses supporting a vaulted canopy, in turn carrying either a shaft and head or a pinnacled spire. Standing crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval customs, both secular and religious, and to our knowledge of medieval parishes and settlement patterns. All crosses which survive as standing monuments, especially those which stand in or near their original location, are considered worthy of protection.

Despite limited damage, Laherne cross is substantially intact, its elaborate decoration and inscriptions being clearly visible. The zoomorphic interlace which occurs in the decoration is very rare on monuments of this type in Cornwall. The comparisons between design features and text on this cross and those of a small group of comparable monuments near its place of origin will contribute to our understanding of the crafting, functions, and social context of crosses.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The scheduling includes a standing cross of the 10th or 11th century situated just north east of the convent at Lanherne, on the south west side of the Vale of Mawgan. The cross is associated with a number of others nearby, one of which forms the subject of a separate scheduling. Lanherne Cross is made of a single piece of Pentewan stone. This is a freestone, or comparatively easily worked stone, from south Cornwall. The cross has a tapering shaft, and a head of the type known as four holed, where a stone ring links the cross limbs, enclosing holes between them. The cross stands 1.49m high, and is rectangular in section, being 0.3m wide (north west-south east) by 0.22m thick (north east-south west) at ground level. The sculpture of shaft and head is accomplished with a high degree of symmetry. The shaft has an entasis, or slight bulging of its sides, more apparent when viewed from the front; it contracts to 0.24m wide and 0.16m thick at the neck. The head is 0.34m high, 0.42m wide, and up to 0.15m thick. The limbs of the cross are expanded, increasing in width from the centre to their outer ends; the arms, lifted just above the horizontal, increase from 0.11m to 0.13m, the upper limb from 0.14m to 0.19m, and the lower limb from 0.16m to 0.31m where it merges with the shaft. The connecting ring is set back a little behind the cross limbs. The relief decoration of the cross is comprehensive and elaborate. Several irregularities or errors are visible in the design, but the carving is neatly executed. There is beading (or rounded section linear moulding) along the angles, continued around the edges of the cross arms and upper limb. On the front, the ornamentation is dominated by the prominent figure of Christ crucified, rendered in high relief. The figure has extended arms with fingers visible. There are protrusions thought to represent the rib cage, and clothing is indicated by a lower hem at the level of the neck of the cross. The feet are turned outwards, and slanting down, so that they appear to stand on the upper curve of the pattern on the shaft beneath. This pattern features an interlaced band, each section of which is made up of three parallel strands defined by incised lines. The lower end of the interlace, around two thirds of the way down the shaft, is finished in a knot. At its top, however, the pattern is not finished off, and several of its component strands are continued up to the cross head, running up from the feet of the figure of Christ, parallel with the legs. Underneath this pattern, separated from it by double beading across the shaft, is another panel containing a text arranged in four horizontal lines, thought to include one or more personal names. The decoration on the rear of the cross head, comprising five round bosses, is in high relief like that on its front. The bosses are arranged symmetrically, one in the centre and one on each arm, and are approximately 0.08m in diameter. On the shaft below is an interlace pattern containing two distinct knots, extending down three quarters of the shaft. Each section of the interlaced band has three strands. The division between the top of the pattern and the cross head is not delineated, and the upper knotwork extends onto the lower cross limb. Towards the bottom of the shaft, a simple engraved line divides the pattern from the text below. This is inscribed horizontally on two lines, and is interpreted as a personal name. On the north west side of the cross, the shaft is covered by an interlaced band with two strands, terminated at the bottom by a knot. On the south east side, the decoration on the shaft takes the form of a zoomorphic or animal motif. The head of a creature, upside down, extends across the base, and its ribbon-like body twists up to the top of the panel and back in an interlace pattern, finished off by the device of the head holding the tail in its mouth. The patterns on the ends of the arms on both narrow sides of the cross are similar, each having two intersecting double-stranded oval bands. Lanherne cross is understood to have been brought to its present site from Roseworthy, in Gwinear, west Cornwall, in the later 18th or early 19th century, and has strong similarities to several other contemporary crosses in west Cornwall. It has limited damage to the head and the bottom of the shaft, thought to have occurred before the move to Lanherne. The tarmac surface and its stone edging and the modern ornamental garden furniture which fall within the cross's 2m protective margin are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Blight, J T, Ancient Crosses and other Antiquities in the East of Cornwall, (1858), 31
Langdon, A, Stone Crosses in Mid Cornwall, (1994), 51
Langdon, A G, Old Cornish Crosses, (1896), 357-359
Okasha, E, Corpus of Early Christian Inscribed Stones of South-west Britain, (1993), 18, 133
Preston-Jones, A, Okasha, E, Hiberno-Saxon Sculpture in Penwith, Cornwall, (1997), 24, 59
Lysons, Rev. D, Lysons, S, 'Magna Britannia' in Magna Britannia, , Vol. 3, (1814)
Other
OW819, (1928)
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1880 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SW 87219 65926

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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End of official listing