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Animal pound at junction of Greatheath Road and Holt Road

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Animal pound at junction of Greatheath Road and Holt Road

List entry Number: 1021131

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Norfolk

District: Breckland

District Type: District Authority

Parish: North Elmham

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 24-Feb-2004

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 35076

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

The term animal pound is derived from the Anglo-Saxon word `pund' meaning enclosure, and is used to describe stock-proof areas for confining stray or illegally pastured stock and legally-kept animals rounded up at certain times of the year from areas of common grazing. The earliest documentary references to pounds date from the 12th century, and they continued to be constructed and used throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods. Most surviving examples are likely to be less than three centuries old, and most will have fallen into disuse in the late 19th or early 20th century. Animal pounds are usually located in villages or towns though some lie in more open locations, particularly on the edge of old woodlands and commons. Construction methods vary according to the availability of building materials: stone, brick, fencing, iron railings and earthworks being used to enclose areas ranging from 4m by 6m to over 0.5ha. The walls are normally about 1.5m high, although greater heights are not uncommon as attempts to prevent poundbreach. In addition to stock control, animals were sometimes taken as a `distress' (seizure of property in lieu of debt or to enforce payment) and kept under the care of the pinder or hayward until redeemed. Pounds are usually unroofed and have a single entrance, although some have additional low entrances to allow the passage of sheep and pigs while retaining larger stock. Other features include rudimentary shelters for the pound-keeper, laid floors, drainage channels, troughs and internal partitions to separate the beasts. Animal pounds are widely distributed throughout England, with particular concentrations in the west and Midlands. About 250 examples are known to survive in fair condition, with perhaps another 150 examples recorded either as remains, or from documentary evidence alone. Pounds illustrate a specialised aspect of past social organisation and animal husbandry, and reflect the use and former appearance of the surrounding landscape. All examples surviving in good condition, particularly those supported by historical evidence for ownership and function, are considered worthy of protection.

The animal pound at the junction of Greatheath Road and Holt Road survives well as a series of standing and buried remains. The buried deposits within the pound and beneath the walls will preserve remains associated with the construction, date and use of the pound. The pound is a rare survival of this class of monument in Norfolk.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes an animal pound located at the northern edge of North Elmham village. The pound is depicted on Ordnance Survey maps dating from 1833 and the tithe map of 1839 gives the name of the field immediately to the north west as `Pound Close'. The structure is a Listed Building Grade II.

The brick-built pound is square in plan, measuring 7m in width with walls 0.3m thick and 1.6m high. They are laid in Flemish bond with semi-circular brick coping along the walls and stone corner copings. There is an entrance in the centre of the south east wall which is closed by a modern wooden gate. A metal plaque attached to the south east wall reads `North Elmham Pound used for penning stray animals. Built c1830.'

The modern gate and gate posts together with the plaque and fixings are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath the posts and the walls to which the posts and plaque are attached are included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 1 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
Norfolk SMR, NF14125, (2002)
Title: North Elmham Tithe Apportionment and Map, DN/TA 364 Source Date: 1839 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: TF 98681 22069

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1021131 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 17-Nov-2017 at 05:50:55.

End of official listing