SE6052SW CITY WALLS
1112-1/13/4 City Wall from Bootham Bar to
(Formerly Listed as:
The City Walls)
(Formerly Listed as:
(Formerly Listed as:
Includes: Monk Bar GOODRAMGATE.
Includes: Robin Hood's Tower LORD MAYOR'S WALK.
Includes: Bootham Bar HIGH PETERGATE.
Defensive walls, towers, gates and gatehouses between Bootham
Bar and Layerthorpe, including 10 intermediate towers, in
addition to the 3 main towers.
1250-70. Wall between Monk Bar and Layerthorpe restored
1877-78, between Bootham Bar and Monk Bar restored 1888-89.
Bootham Bar repaired 1645 following Civil War damage; barbican
removed 1831; inner side remodelled and flanking arches
created 1834; major restorations of 1889 and 1969: figures
carved in 1894 by George Milburn. Robin Hood's Tower rebuilt
1889. Monk Bar early C14, raised in late C15, refenestrated in
C16; barbican removed 1825; flanking arches 1845 and 1861;
restorations of 1952-53 and 1966.
MATERIALS: magnesian limestone ashlar; Bootham Bar
incorporates reused Roman gritstone: Bootham and Monk Bars
have lead roofs.
EXTERIOR: walls battered to full height in places, with
chamfered plinth, strengthened by buttresses with weathered
offsets. Crenellations have sloped copings and some merlons
pierced by musket loops or gunports. On inner side, stone
paved wallwalk largely carried on series of round arches,
protected by cast-iron railings.
Towers are half-hexagonal, semicircular, rectangular or
irregular in shape, most having cruciform arrow slits with
oillets: one along Jewbury has musket loops. Most have
embattled parapets with merlons pierced by arrow slits: one in
angle of the wall along Jewbury has corbelled string course
beneath reconstructed C19 merlons. Towers along Lord Mayor's
Walk and Jewbury have C19 bartizans, the former embattled, the
latter with plain copings. Former has carved shield with cross
in relief. Tower at Layerthorpe end is supported on 2 buttress
bases and reused corbels, and incorporates head of pointed
arch of 5 orders: on outer side, water spout survives.
Adjacent wall is stepped down to chamfered gateway with
2-centred head closed by iron bar gate.
Bootham Bar: 3 storeys. Round arch of 2 orders is flanked by
buttresses with offsets, rising to circular bartizans at
second floor level. On first floor are two small pointed
windows: on second floor, two blocked rectangular windows
beneath plain parapet between bartizans. Chamfered string
courses on first and second floors extend full width of front,
buttresses and bartizans. Beneath second floor string are two
shields carved with the Arms of the City of York, both
formerly painted; above is shield of the Stuart Royal Arms
within moulded round-headed panel. Figures topping bartizans
and parapet represent an Alderman, a mason and a knight. Inner
side largely repeats the outer with cruciform arrow slits on
first floor, narrow slits windows in chamfered openings on
second floor and shallow recessed panel beneath parapet.
INTERIOR: raised portcullis fixed in position behind outer
Robin Hood's Tower has high chamfered plinth, 2 tiers of
cruciform slits and embattled parapet above string course,
merlons pierced by slits and with gabled inside and out.
Monk Bar: 4 storeys. Round carriage arch 2 plain orders
recessed beneath giant 2-centred arch of 2 chamfered orders
springing from 2-storey projecting pilaster buttresses with
moulded and weathered bases. First floor of buttresses pierced
by shouldered doorways to original barbican: above carriage
arch, 2 tiers of cruciform arrow slits. Buttresses rise into
corbelled-out 3-stage embattled bartizans joined at second
stage by gallery with embattled parapet, at third stage by
plain parapet. Bartizans have cruciform arrow slits to each
stage, also to second stage, behind gallery, over square
gunports. Heraldry includes 2 painted and carved shields of
the Arms of City of York and shield of the Royal Arms of
England beneath crowned helm with crest, all beneath canopies.
Both bartizans topped by 3 carved figures of wildmen holding
boulders. Inner side has giant segmental chamfered arch over
recessed carriageway arch with pointed arched staircase door
at left. Above carriage arch is corbelled gallery beneath low
round-headed doorway, central window of 2 tiers of 3
round-headed lights and 1-light window to left, in chamfered
surrounds. Second floor has square-headed window of 3
trefoiled lights in centre, niches with cinquefoiled heads at
each end. Third floor has square-headed window of paired
shouldered lights at each side of shallow trefoil-headed niche
in round-headed moulded surround.
INTERIOR: staircases to all floors contained in wall
thickness. All upper floors are stone-flagged and roofs to
ground, first and second floors are vaulted with chamfered
stone ribs. Garderobes and fireplaces survive on first and
second floors. On first floor, raised portcullis is visible:
on second floor, wooden windlass for portcullis survives.
(An Inventory of the Historical Monuments in the City of York:
The Defences: HMSO: 1972-: 115-137).
Listing NGR: SE6028852410