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List Entry Summary

This building is listed under the Planning (Listed Buildings and Conservation Areas) Act 1990 as amended for its special architectural or historic interest.


List entry Number: 1268945



The building may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Hertfordshire

District: East Hertfordshire

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Hertford

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: II*

Date first listed: 10-Feb-1950

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: LBS

UID: 461281

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Building

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.



TL3212SE CASTLE STREET 817-1/20/34 (South side) 10/02/50 Nos.21 AND 23 The Walnuts (No.23) including front railings


House, originally Hall House, now subdivided to form offices (No.21) and house (No.23). Mid/late C15, altered, part reconstructed and extended C17 and C18, with 1960s alterations and shopfront (No.21), and comprehensive restoration 1993-5 (No.23). Timber-framed, plastered, with multiple gabled roofs with moulded eaves cornice and old tiles. Red brick chimneys with oversailing courses and long clay pots; twin shafted stack, linked by oversailing courses at right (west); rendered brick external chimneybreast at left (east) front. PLAN: 4 bay plan, hall in central 2, with cross wings in line and, unjettied, buttery and store at right (west) end of hall. Hall reconstructed to incorporate first (chamber) floor C17, and external fireplace added at rear (south). Wings added left and right late C17, and large rear room ground and first floors C18 to give double-depth formation. Cellar excavated below hall at same date. EXTERIOR: 2 storeys, with attics at right (west). Main elevation to Castle Street, 5 first floor flush-set wood sash windows, 8 by 8 pane, with heavy quadrant bars and some crown glass, within architrave surrounds. 2 right-hand windows have fascia and cornice above, and plat band below sills. 2 central windows raised with heads under eaves, left and right windows in break from front under gables of cross wings. Ground floor has canted bay with sashes at left, 2 large sashes, 12 pane above 8 pane in centre, with external 2 panelled wood shutters, smaller 8 by 8-pane sash at right, with shutters, with surround similar to first floor. Doorway in right cross wing with 6 fielded panel door, upper 2 glazed, recessed in architrave surround, cut by triple keyblock, stone step, flat doorhood with moulded cornice on cut brackets. Return left (east) elevation has external rendered chimneybreast and red brick corner with ramped coping. First floor 5 light leaded casement window and modern 3 light small paned wood casement window on ground floor. Projecting 2-storey gabled wing, with outshoot at left faces east, and is now part of No.21. Flank elevation has 2 light leaded casement window on first floor and 2 flush set sashes on ground floor. Principal east

elevation has flush set coupled C19 sashes on first floor below gable, with single sash, 4 pane above, plain glazing below, to left. Ground floor has full width modern projecting shopfront, with small paned display windows left and right, central recessed entrance, continuous fascia, moulded cornice and flat roof. Side (west) elevation to No.23 has hipped return, gabled staircase turret rising to attic, and right (south) projecting wing, 2 storeys and attic, with gables facing west and south. Scattered fenestration, mainly C20 wood 2- and 3-light small-paned casements, but with 3-light oak mullioned window on first floor to left of stair turret. Rear (south) elevation gabled at left, with later construction of south wing oversailing and concealing half of second gable; first floor with oak mullion and transom window at left, 12-pane flush-set sash in centre, and 1 large slightly recessed 12-pane sash in south wing at right. Ground floor has C20 black weatherboarded tiled-roofed lean-to and conservatory at left, and 1 large triple sash, 4:12:4-panes at right in south wing. INTERIOR: (No.21) Ground floor much altered and opened out; first floor east front room has C17 panelling and a cornice of crude triglyph and strap ornament. (No.23) Vestibule in west cross wing leads left into central hall through mid/late C15 twin ogee headed doorways, with chamfered jambs. To right of vestibule is C17 west wing. Hall has substantial C17 brick fireplace in centre of rear wall. Late C17 oak panelling; behind panelling of front wall immediately right of screens, and hard against ceiling and mid-plate is unglazed early C17 3-light window with ovolo moulded mullions and intermediate slender diamond mullions to anchor leaded glazing (no longer extant). Heavy beam supports inserted first floor. To left of fireplace is spiral timber newel staircase leading to first floor. Large rear ground floor room has C18 moulded wood cornice. Main stair has C20 turned balusters; adjoining short top flight to large rear bedroom, a fragment of mid C19 wallpaper, with a motif of an arched surround framing landscape and garden scenes, printed in sepia, was extant at time of inspection. Large rear bedroom altered 1994 to incorporate integral bathroom. Large front chamber above hall, central tie beam has filled mortice indicating the existence of longitudinal beams, removed when ceiling raised in C18; at east end, tie beam has a roughly cut back arch brace against outer wall post. Much altered bolection moulded fire surround; C17 panelling part reset. West cross wing ceiled at collar level; crown post roof. C17 rear west wing rear bedroom has oak mullion and transom

window; dogleg stair from first floor to attics, newel with moulded cap. Gabled attic has door to second attic to east, now partly enclosed by roof over rear (south) C18 wing, but earlier roof structure partly intact, including 3-light window in south gable, now covered by roughcast externally. Roof over rear bedroom much restored with C20 sawn timber. Roof over west cross-wing halved and pegged rafters. Roof over hall has smoke-blackened rafters, halved and pegged, but clearly reset as assembly marks and mortices for former collars (now removed) are not consistent; no remains of former crown post structure. The roof is now stiffened by a C18 peg-jointed queen strut and side purlin structure. Cellar beneath hall of No.23 has red brick walls and paviour floor; C18 trelliswork meat safe with plank door with HL-hinges. SUBSIDIARY FEATURES: along the street frontage are mid C19 cast-iron railings with spear uprights, bay supports with urn finials and ogee bracing. HISTORICAL NOTE: this building, with others in Castle Street and West Street lay outside Hertford in the Brickendon Liberty until the mid C17. In the late C19/early C20 'The Walnuts' was the home of the Hertfordshire historian and antiquarian RT Andrews. (Royal Commission on Historical Monuments (England): An Inventory of the Historical Monuments of Hertfordshire: London: 1910-: 71; The Buildings of England: Pevsner N: Hertfordshire: Harmondsworth: 1977-: 191).

Listing NGR: TL3257812412

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Pevsner, N, Cherry, B, The Buildings of England: Hertfordshire, (1977), 191
Inventory of the Historical Monuments of Hertfordshire, (1910)

National Grid Reference: TL 32578 12412


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End of official listing