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D-day landing craft maintenance site at Mylor harbour

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: D-day landing craft maintenance site at Mylor harbour

List entry Number: 1020050

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Cornwall

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Mylor

National Park: N/A

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 06-Mar-2002

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15553

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

D-Day, June 6th 1944, is one of the most significant dates in modern history, defining the start of the final phase of World War II in Europe. After 2-3 years of preparations, the assault phase of `Operation Overlord' - codenamed Neptune - lasted for little over three weeks and by 30 June had landed over 850,000 men on the invasion beachheads, together with nearly 150,000 vehicles and 570,000 tons of supplies. Sites used for the building, maintenance and repair of landing craft and landing ships were essential to developing and retaining a fleet capable of delivering Prime Minister Churchill's `great plan'. With so many vessels involved (landing craft and landing ships principally, but there were 46 different types in all), construction and maintenance were significant tasks. Contemporary descriptions refer to unprecedented levels of maritime activity, with every port, harbour and boatyard being involved, in addition to beaches and the streets of coastal towns and villages. The more substantial sites were either in largely unmodified dry docks or on specially built `gridirons' or slipways. The gridirons were used for maintenance, and took the form of a series of parallel concrete slipways running down a slight gradient into the water, allowing the boat to be floated on at high tide and repaired at low tide; some were supplied with a winch mechanism for pulling vessels onto the grid, and steel mooring points (`dolphins') for securing them when afloat. Recorded examples include sites on the Rivers Dart (Devon), Tamar and Fal (Cornwall), and in Portsmouth Harbour. Slipways, with a metal rail, winch mechanisms and dolphins, used for landing ship repairs, are recorded on the River Dart. However, much construction, repair and maintenance work was conducted on an ad hoc arrangement and leaves little trace: for example, landing craft (assault) - LCAs - were small vessels constructed and repaired mainly in back streets and improvised hards at the water's edge. Although in military archaeology fixed defences will often survive better than materiel representing the mobile offensive, sufficient of the preparations for D-Day in England remains to give an impression of the scale of the Operation, and the variety of the specific tasks involved. All sites where surviving remains provide an impression of the scale and nature of the preparations for D-Day will be considered of national importance.

The D-Day landing craft maintenance site at Mylor harbour survives well as the only such site nationally which retains one of its dolphins intact along with the gridiron. The preservation of the gridiron by burial during redevelopment of the modern quay above it provided a research opportunity resulting in this monument being an unusually well-documented example of its class both archaeologically and historically. It forms an integral part of a group of maintenance and embarkation sites along the coast bordering the Carrick Roads, together with camps and transit areas behind the coast, which reflected the infrastructure necessary for successful preparation and execution of the D-Day landings. The good survival of a range of these sites along the Carrick Roads, in which this monument is an important component, provides valuable evidence for the operation's strategic planning, the detailed physical nature of its execution, and the dispersal and concealment of its key activities essential to maintain secrecy from the enemy.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a maintenance site specifically built for landing craft engaged in the 1944 D-Day landings during World War II. The maintenance site includes an arrangement of parallel concrete piers called a `gridiron' on the shore, to the seaward side is a concrete and steel mooring point called a `dolphin'. The monument is located on the west side of Mylor harbour, opening onto the major navigable estuary of the Carrick Roads on the south coast of west Cornwall. The monument is divided into two separate areas of protection, one of which extends below Mean Low Water. The gridiron was designed to allow landing craft to be floated over it at high tide then moored, coming to rest upon it as the tide fell, enabling inspection, scraping and repairs to be carried out. Records show that the gridiron at Mylor was built by a local firm, E Thomas and Son Ltd, the work supervised by Mr Bernard Breakell, formerly a Devonport Dockyard civil engineer. Overall the gridiron measures 40.23m wide north west-south east and contains nine parallel straight piers centred 4.88m apart. The piers, approximately 40m long north west-south east slope gently down the intertidal shore and are built of shuttered concrete, with casts of the shuttering planks on their surfaces; each is of rectangular section, 0.61m wide, rising 0.76m from a concrete bedding plinth extending 0.3m beyond the pier sides. Recessed along the upper edges of each pier are opposed metal angle-brackets, 3.05m apart, bolted together through the thickness of the pier and with bolt-holes facing upwards to secure timbers formerly laid along the piers' upper surfaces though subsequently removed. Between the piers' bedding plinths the shore surface was consolidated with compacted clay and slate fragments. Limited excavation and probing has revealed that across much or all of the landward third of the gridiron the bedding plinths have been replaced by a continuous concrete apron underlying all nine piers. A low concrete-block wall along the seaward edge of the apron and linking the eastern two piers is understood to be a post-war addition to the structure. An aerial photograph of the gridiron in 1946 shows additional linear structures extending from the landward ends of several piers, converging on two points along the sea wall behind. This is considered to relate to winching and mooring mechanisms by which landing craft were positioned on the gridiron. The exposed landward ends of the western piers showed no surviving remains from these structures in 2000. The dolphin is centred about 25m beyond the seaward edge of the gridiron. It rises roughly 6m from the lower shore, founded on a concrete plinth 1.5m high and about 4 sq m in plan. From each corner of the plinth rises a steel pile formed as a box girder by welding two channelled girders back-to-back. Close to their upper ends, the four piles support a concrete platform about 3 sq m and 0.4m thick; the tops of the piles project about 0.3m from the platform's upper surface. Some piles retain remains of a thin concrete pad bolted around the pile about 0.75m below the platform; these pads may have supported fenders protecting the piles from impact when landing craft were being manoeuvred beside them. A second dolphin, 67m to the south east, was removed in 2001 following photographic recording. The gridiron in this monument was partly buried across both ends following construction of a hammer-head quay, the Admiralty Quay, in 1951, though much of the gridiron remained exposed within the quay's eastern basin. During redevelopment of the quay to provide a car and boat parking facility and slipway in 2000, the eastern basin of the quay was infilled behind a new retaining wall built over the east end of the gridiron; following detailed recording, measures were taken to ensure the intact preservation of the gridiron beneath the retaining wall and the infill deposits. This monument is part of an interrelated group of sites along the Carrick Roads which provided necessary facilities used by United States forces during the preparation and execution of the D-Day landings. These facilities included another gridiron, at Falmouth, and five embarkation points, called `hards', at various points along the estuary. All modern metalled surfaces, the oil interceptor, its drains and pipework and all modern materials stored on the dolphins are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included. All modern structures and ground-raising deposits in the area encompassing the gridiron and which lie above a plane 1m above the upper surfaces of the gridiron piers are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground and all features beneath that level is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Breakell B, , Falmouth at War, (1990)
Other
Accompanies notes to MPP evaln visits, RAF, 1946 vertical AP of Mylor harbour with the gridiron & dolphins, (1946)
Annex 1 to notes for MPP evaln visits, Johnson N, D-Day Embarkation and Maintenance Sites, (1999)
Title: 1:10000 Ordnance Survey Map SW 83 NW Source Date: 1973 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Revised plan and notes of gridiron after exp of landward end at NW Source Date: 2000 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: Amends draft report in Source 2
Watts, M A & Exeter Archaeology, Arch Recording of WW2 Gridiron at Mylor Yacht Harbour, 2000, Unpub Exeter Arch draft rpt Oct 2000

National Grid Reference: SW 82016 35408, SW 82021 35360

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1020050 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 14-Dec-2017 at 06:27:12.

End of official listing