The Importance of Historic Cemeteries and Burial Grounds
The combination of architecture, sculpture, landscape, wildlife and poetry makes cemeteries like no other place in the historic environment. This web page provides advice on the historic importance of cemeteries, and in particular Victorian cemeteries.
Cemeteries were conceived and designed both as gardens of the dead and as a memorial. The inscription on memorials, the design of monuments, the choice of stones, the architecture of building and landscape design shed light on past social customs and events and combine to make a cemetery an irreplaceable historical resource. As an important record of the social history of the area, each cemetery is also the biography of its community. Many cemeteries include both consecrated and non-consecrated sections, and some cemeteries are dedicated to a particular faith.
Many of our historic cemeteries are still being used for the business of burying and mourning. They are valued as places for quiet reflection, as green spaces, and for their wildlife interest. This section looks at:
- The history of cemetery and crematoria design
- The history of cemetery and churchyard monuments
- War memorials and Commonwealth War Graves Commission graves
- Listing of cemeteries and grave monuments
- Wildlife and habitats in cemeteries and churchyards
- Geological interest of cemeteries
- Green Infrastructure value of cemeteries and churchyards and
- Recording cemeteries and burial grounds, monuments and memorials
The history of cemetery and crematoria design
The development of cemeteries in the mid-19th century reflects the unsavoury and insanitary nature of urban churchyards which had become overcrowded with burials, and the desire for alternative burial grounds. The cemetery developers – and many were local authorities – commissioned leading architects and designers to layout the cemetery landscapes and build chapels, lodges, gates and walls. As esteemed places, families also commissioned grand monuments with fine sculpture and beautiful stones. There is a strong link between the design of cemeteries and Victorian public parks hence the garden character of these last resting places for the dead. The tradition continued with the design of the crematoria landscapes into the 20th century.
The history of cemetery and crematoria development is summarised in our publication Landscapes of Remembrance. It also includes suggestions for further reading on the history of cemeteries.
The history of cemetery and churchyard monuments
Few very early monuments survive. Medieval outdoor tombs and 17th century headstones are rare. From the Georgian period onwards, churchyard funerary monuments abound. The opening of new cemeteries in the 19th century created new opportunities and large tombs and memorials became more affordable. A wider range of stones was also available. From the turn of the 20th century memorials and monuments reflect a shift in fashion and taste towards simpler and more uniform structures. Ideas continue to evolve. More elaborate gravestones and large tombs seem to be emerging again and black granites often dominate. The history of funerary monuments is outlined in our publication Commemorative Structures.
War memorials and Commonwealth War Graves Commission graves
Many cemeteries and churchyards include war memorials and Commonwealth War Graves Commission graves of the men and women of the armed forces who died in the First and Second World Wars. Our technical guidance page Looking After War Memorials provides detailed advice on their conservation and management.
Listing of cemeteries and grave monuments
Cemeteries of national interest for their landscape design are registered. Our Selection Guide sets out the criteria for this designation. We have published a list of the 116 registered cemeteries, their dates, designers and the reasons for designation for ease of reference. These are mostly 19th century cemeteries but there are a few earlier examples like Bunhill Fields in London and some late 20th century designs like Salisbury Crematoria. More crematoria are likely to be considered for registration as designed landscapes of special historic interest but so far there are only a few that have been designated. Cemetery buildings and features like gates and walls may also be listed.
Monuments, memorials, gravestones and mausolea notable for the quality of their design, sculpture, materials or interest of the commemorated person or epitaph may be listed too. Our Selection Guide: Commemorative Structures explains the listing criteria.
Some cemeteries and burial grounds are important features in Conservation Areas.
These designated sites, buildings and monuments are protected from alteration, demolition or inappropriate development on neighbouring sites that impact their curtilage and setting. Statutory consents may also be necessary including any works to trees. If consecrated grounds, permission may be required from the denomination’s relevant advisory committee.
Wildlife and habitats in cemeteries and churchyards
As well as being a place for people, burial grounds can also be a haven for wildlife. Cemeteries, churchyards and burial places are often included in local habitat action plans looking at wildlife conservation priorities.
Carved out from the Victorian countryside on the edge of towns, interesting wild flowers can be found in some cemeteries.
Caring for God’s Acre is a non-religious charity dedicated to conserving and celebrating burial grounds and encouraging a holistic approach to management. They provide lots of useful information, resource packs and case studies on protecting wildlife, heritage and involving people in all types of burial grounds from urban cemeteries to rural churchyards. The Field Studies Council fold-out identification charts on Wildlife of Burial Grounds, and Churchyard Lichens are useful.
Some animals, plants, trees and habitats may be protected by law and advice should be sought. Conservation and maintenance work should be carefully planned to not disturb bats, nesting birds and other wildlife. For more advice see our technical guidance web pages.
Geological interest of cemeteries
Cemeteries are often great places to study different stone types and their characteristics. Weathered limestones may reveal embedded fossils. Sandstone memorials often show the geological sedimentary layers and structures. Cemeteries include examples of late 19th century memorials made of decorative and durable granites from Cornwall, the Lake District and Scotland which could be transported by the new railways. Metamorphic rocks like gneisses and migmatites are also used for monuments.
Online you can find several examples of cemeteries being used for teaching and some cemeteries offer geology guides.
Green Infrastructure value of cemeteries and churchyards
Cemeteries, churchyards and burial grounds are part of a network of green spaces in towns and cities called Green Infrastructure. They offer special places for quiet, reflection and contemplation; and like other green spaces have an important role in mitigating effects of climate change.
Recording cemeteries and burial grounds, monuments and memorials
There are many recording projects from individual family historians to Friends and community groups.
Researchers at the University of York have been awarded £74,000 by Historic England to help community groups to research burial spaces. ‘Discovering England’s Burial Spaces’ project is working with community groups to develop new tools for burial space research and dissemination. The project will also pilot a national database for burial space research, so that groups conducting work at burial spaces can safeguard their research in perpetuity and share findings with other researchers.
Also of interest
Historic England Research Report 101/2016: Devon Cobbled Churchyard Paths: Evaluating their Significance, Survival and Adaptation
Historic England Research Report 81/2016 : Assessing the Impact of Trench Arch Drainage Systems on Archaeological Remains in Churchyards