Romano-British farmstead 500m north west of Garretshiels
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1009377
Date first listed: 09-Aug-1994
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This copy shows the entry on 17-Feb-2019 at 11:26:02.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)
National Park: NORTHUMBERLAND
National Grid Reference: NY 86373 93237
Reasons for Designation
In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.
The farmstead north west of Garretshiels is reasonably well preserved and retains significant archaeological deposits. It is one of a group of similar Romano-British settlements in the area and will contribute to any study of the settlement pattern at this time.
The monument includes the remains of a farmstead of Romano-British date
situated on a north east facing slope. The farmstead, sub-rectangular in
shape, measures a maximum of 43m east to west by 53m north to south within a
broad ditch up to 6m wide in places. Within the ditch, there are traces of an
internal bank of earth and stone on average 3m wide. The remains of a
counterscarp bank 2m-3m wide can be seen on the west and north eastern sides
of the enclosure. There is an original entrance 4m wide in the eastern side of
the enclosure, and a later entrance through the western wall; an associated
hollow way enters the enclosure through the latter entrance and crosses the
site from west to east. Within the enclosure there are the remains of later
habitation in the form of at least two rectangular buildings and fragmentary
walling in the north western part of the enclosure and a scooped enclosure on
the east side.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 25096
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Charlton, D B, Day, J C, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 5 ser 6' in Excavation and Field Survey in Upper Redesdale, (1978), 85
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana 4 ser 38' in Rectlinear Settlements of the Roman Period in Northumberland, (1960), 36
NY 89 SE 03,
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing