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Civil War breastwork ESE of Dick's Carn, St Mary's

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Civil War breastwork ESE of Dick's Carn, St Mary's

List entry Number: 1011942

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Isles of Scilly

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: St. Mary's

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 09-May-1995

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 15358

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

The Isles of Scilly, the westernmost of the granite masses of south west England, contain a remarkable abundance and variety of archaeological remains from over 4000 years of human activity. The remote physical setting of the islands, over 40km beyond the mainland in the approaches to the English Channel, has lent a distinctive character to those remains, producing many unusual features important for our broader understanding of the social development of early communities. Throughout the human occupation there has been a gradual submergence of the islands' land area, providing a stimulus to change in the environment and its exploitation. This process has produced evidence for responses to such change against an independent time-scale, promoting integrated studies of archaeological, environmental and linguistic aspects of the islands' settlement. The islands' archaeological remains demonstrate clearly the gradually expanding size and range of contacts of their communities. By the post- medieval period (from AD 1540), the islands occupied a nationally strategic location, resulting in an important concentration of defensive works reflecting the development of fortification methods and technology from the mid 16th to the 20th centuries. An important and unusual range of post- medieval monuments also reflects the islands' position as a formidable hazard for the nation's shipping in the western approaches. The exceptional preservation of the archaeological remains on the islands has long been recognised, producing an unusually full and detailed body of documentation, including several recent surveys. Civil War fieldworks are earthworks which were raised during military operations between 1642 and 1651 to provide temporary protection for infantry or to act as gun emplacements. The earthworks, which may have been reinforced with revetting or palisades, consist of earth and rubble platforms or banks and ditches. The Civil War fieldworks of the Isles of Scilly form a major part of the 150 surviving examples of fieldworks recorded nationally. They present an unusually complete system of fortifications from this period, both in the surviving range of fieldwork types represented and in the surviving pattern of their strategic disposition. Three main types of Civil War fieldwork have been recognised on the Isles of Scilly: breastworks, batteries and platforms; these could be deployed separately or in combination to form a defensive complex. Breastworks, which on the Isles of Scilly run beside the coastal cliff edge, consist of an earth and rubble bank, up to 4m wide and nearly 2m high but generally much smaller, usually accompanied by a ditch on the landward side. Sixteen surviving examples are recorded on the islands. Batteries are levelled areas or platforms, generally up to 20m across, situated on a hilltop or terraced into a slope to serve as gun emplacements. They vary considerably in size and shape and are usually partially or wholly enclosed by a bank, occasionally incorporating one or two outer ditches. Twenty batteries survive on the Isles of Scilly, several connected by breastworks. Adjacent to some batteries are examples of the third fieldwork type, platforms. These are partly terraced into, and partly out from, sloping ground and represent sites of lookouts and temporary buildings. Eight such platforms, measuring up to 12m by 8m in size, are known to survive on the islands. These fieldworks and fieldwork complexes were occasionally associated with other classes of defensive monument on the islands, including earthen artillery forts and blockhouses. The fieldworks were designed to defend the deep water approaches to the islands, especially St Mary's where most examples are found. Fieldworks are also known from Tresco, Bryher, Samson, St Agnes and Gugh. The circumstances of their construction are recorded in contemporary historical documents which indicate most were built by the Royalist forces which controlled the islands for the entire Civil War period except during 1646-8.

This Civil War breastwork bordering Porth Hellick has survived well, with only minor damage where footpaths cross it. Its situation and the survival of extensive historical documentation giving the context in which this breastwork was built demonstrate clearly the strategic methods employed by the Civil War military forces and the function of breastworks within them. These methods are also well illustrated by the complementary relationship between this monument and the other surviving breastwork and the batteries along the north east side of Porth Hellick.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a length of defensive bank and ditch, called a breastwork and dating to the English Civil War, extending along part of the north east side of Porth Hellick on the south eastern coast of St Mary's in the Isles of Scilly. The breastwork survives as a turf-covered earth and rubble bank, up to 2m wide and 1m high, with intermittent traces of a ditch, up to 1m wide and 1m deep, along the landward side of the bank. The breastwork extends on an almost straight line for 50m ESE from the eastern edge of a massive coastal granite stack called Dick's Carn, sometimes also named the Loaded Camel. The course of the breastwork, which bends to a slightly more south easterly course from 15m ESE of Dick's Carn, runs approximately 10m behind the upper shoreline of Porth Hellick, ending abruptly at its ESE end. Two breaks, 1m - 1.5m wide in the breastwork close to each end are due to the passage of modern footpaths, reducing the height of the bank to 0.1m where they pass over it. This breastwork forms part of an integrated series of Civil War coastal defences which survive extensively around St Mary's. In the vicinity of this monument, the defensive line along the north east side of Porth Hellick is continued to the mouth of the bay by a second surviving length of breastwork from 57m to the south east. A Civil War coastal gun battery is built into the eastern end of that breastwork, 90m to the south east, while a second battery is located at a higher level among the outcrops overlooking Porth Hellick Point, 150m to the ESE.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
consulted 1994, Waters, A., AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7529, (1988)
consulted 1994, Waters, A., AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7530, (1988)
consulted 1994, Waters, A., AM 107 for Scilly SMR entry PRN 7533, (1988)
Title: 1:2500 Ordnance Survey Map; SV 9210 Source Date: 1980 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

National Grid Reference: SV 92645 10585

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
Use of this data is subject to Terms and Conditions.

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This copy shows the entry on 19-Nov-2017 at 07:59:42.

End of official listing