Cross Putty, medieval wayside cross-base 70m south east of Bosworgey Cottage


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1017641

Date first listed: 29-Jan-1998


Ordnance survey map of Cross Putty, medieval wayside cross-base 70m south east of Bosworgey Cottage
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Cornwall (Unitary Authority)

Parish: St. Columb Major

National Grid Reference: SW 90143 63079


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Wayside crosses are one of several types of Christian cross erected during the medieval period, mostly from the 9th to 15th centuries AD. In addition to serving the function of reiterating and reinforcing the Christian faith amongst those who passed the cross and of reassuring the traveller, wayside crosses often fulfilled a role as waymarkers, especially in difficult and otherwise unmarked terrain. The crosses might be on regularly used routes linking ordinary settlements or on routes having a more specifically religious function, including those providing access to religious sites for parishioners and funeral processions, or marking long-distance routes frequented on pilgrimages. Over 350 wayside crosses are known nationally, concentrated in south west England throughout Cornwall and on Dartmoor where they form the commonest type of stone cross. A small group also occurs on the North York Moors. Relatively few examples have been recorded elsewhere and these are generally confined to remote moorland locations. Outside Cornwall almost all wayside crosses take the form of a `Latin' cross, in which the cross-head itself is shaped within the projecting arms of an unenclosed cross. In Cornwall wayside crosses vary considerably in form and decoration. The commonest type includes a round, or `wheel', head on the faces of which various forms of cross or related designs were carved in relief or incised, the spaces between the cross arms possibly pierced. The design was sometimes supplemented with a relief figure of Christ and the shaft might bear decorative panels and motifs. Less common forms in Cornwall include the `Latin' cross and, much rarer, the simple slab with a low relief cross on both faces. Rare examples of wheel-head and slab-form crosses also occur within the North York Moors group. Most wayside crosses have either a simple socketed base or show no evidence for a separate base at all. Wayside crosses contribute significantly to our understanding of medieval religious customs and sculptural traditions and to our knowledge of medieval routeways and settlement patterns. All wayside crosses which survive as earth- fast monuments, except those which are extremely damaged and removed from their original locations, are considered worthy of protection.

The presence of this medieval wayside cross-base close to its original location demonstrates well the major roles of wayside crosses, the development of the road network and the longevity of many routes still in use.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes a medieval wayside cross-base situated on a wide verge at a crossroads on a route from St Columb Major to Newquay. The wayside cross- base is visible as a rectangular granite slab measuring 0.78m north-south by 0.67m east-west. The cross-base is groundfast, set almost flush with the ground, though up to 0.09m of the sides are visible above ground. The central square socket measures 0.37m north-south by 0.39m east-west and is 0.2m deep. The socket is filled with water. The cross-base has been moved twice in the recent past due to road alterations at this junction, but has remained close to its original location. The cross-base is still used today as a hurling goal, an ancient ball game which is played twice a year by the people of St Columb Major parish, on Shrove Tuesday and the second Saturday following. The cross-base marks a junction of four roads. A 19th century granite milestone which is Listed Grade II is located 0.95m to the south of the cross-base. The milestone is excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath it is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 30438

Legacy System: RSM


Books and journals
Kightly, C, The Customs and Ceremonies of Britain, (1986)
Langdon, A, Stone Crosses in Mid Cornwall, (1994)
Title: 1:25000 Ordnance Survey Map; SW 86/96; Pathfinder Series 1346 Source Date: 1985 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:

End of official listing