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D-Day landing craft maintenance site on the River Dart, 270m south east of Maypool Cottage

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: D-Day landing craft maintenance site on the River Dart, 270m south east of Maypool Cottage

List entry Number: 1020912

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Devon

District: South Hams

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Kingswear

National Park: N/A

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 12-Mar-2003

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 33060

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

D-Day, June 6th 1944, is one of the most significant dates in modern history, defining the start of the final phase of World War II in Europe. After 2-3 years of preparations, the assault phase of `Operation Overlord' - codenamed Neptune - lasted for little over three weeks and by 30 June had landed over 850,000 men on the invasion beachheads, together with nearly 150,000 vehicles and 570,000 tons of supplies. Sites used for the building, maintenance and repair of landing craft and landing ships were essential to developing and retaining a fleet capable of delivering Prime Minister Churchill's `great plan'. With so many vessels involved (landing craft and landing ships principally, but there were 46 different types in all), construction and maintenance were significant tasks. Contemporary descriptions refer to unprecedented levels of maritime activity, with every port, harbour and boatyard being involved, in addition to beaches and the streets of coastal towns and villages. The more substantial sites were either in largely unmodified dry docks or on specially built `gridirons' or slipways. The gridirons were used for maintenance, and took the form of a series of parallel concrete slipways running down a slight gradient into the water, allowing the boat to be floated on at high tide and repaired at low tide; some were supplied with a winch mechanism for pulling vessels onto the grid, and steel mooring points (`dolphins') for securing them when afloat. Recorded examples include sites on the Rivers Dart (Devon), Tamar and Fal (Cornwall), and in Portsmouth Harbour. Slipways, with a metal rail, winch mechanisms and dolphins, used for landing ship repairs, are recorded on the River Dart. However, much construction, repair and maintenance work was conducted on an ad hoc arrangement and leaves little trace: for example, landing craft (assault) - LCAs - were small vessels constructed and repaired mainly in back streets and improvised hards at the water's edge. Although in military archaeology fixed defences will often survive better than materiel representing the mobile offensive, sufficient of the preparations for D-Day in England remains to give an impression of the scale of the Operation, and the variety of the specific tasks involved. All sites where surviving remains provide an impression of the scale and nature of the preparations for D-Day will be considered of national importance.

The D-Day landing craft maintenance site on the River Dart, 270m south east of Maypool Cottage survives well with the gridiron retaining all 12 piers. Associated structures also survive, most particularly the small raised quay. The physical remains of the monument are complemented by valuable recorded detail about the site's location within the wider context of the USNAAB at Dartmouth.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a maintenance site built on the east bank of the River Dart upstream from the port of Dartmouth in South Devon. Its purpose was to service landing ships during the preparations, engagement, and aftermath of the 1944 D-Day landings during World War II. The site includes an arrangement of concrete piers called a `gridiron', a ramped and raised concrete quay emplacement, and an earthfast concrete mooring post. Operating from 1943 to 1944 the monument was one of a number of repair and maintenance sites on the River Dart which were under the control of the United States Naval Advanced Amphibious Base (USNAAB) at Dartmouth; these repair sites contributed to the D-Day preparations codenamed Operation Overlord. The gridiron was designed to allow flat-bottomed landing craft to be floated over it sideways at high tide then moored, coming to rest upon it as the tide fell and enabling inspection, cleaning, and repairs to be carried out. Overall the gridiron measures a little over 54m in width north west to south east, and contains 12 parallel straight piers centred 4.85m apart. The piers are just over 30m in length and slope gently down the intertidal shore to just below Mean Low Water (MLW). The piers, which are built of shuttered concrete and are embedded in the foreshore shingle and mud, have a maximum width of about 0.7m. Excavation of a gridiron site at Mylor in Cornwall suggests that the piers sit upon a concrete raft. Along the upper edges of each pier are a series of opposed recesses 0.6m in length by 0.18m wide and 0.12m deep, centred 3.2m apart. These recesses are believed to have held timber rails formerly laid along the piers' upper surfaces at right angles to them, and these perhaps prevented the bottom of the craft's hull from coming into direct contact with the concrete piers. At a distance of 10m from either end of the gridiron and about 8m inland from MLW, are two low concrete emplacements both about 4m long by 2m wide which are considered to be associated mooring posts. Two timber and steel mooring points (`dolphins') located further into the river which would have held the craft in place whilst afloat and during the positioning operation, no longer survive at Maypool. A further component of the repair facility which does survive is a small raised quay with an overall length of 23m and a width of 6m. It is orientated at right angles to the gridiron about 20m further into the shore at the High Water Mark. Set alongside the low cliff face which forms the rear of the site, it has a vertical shuttered-concrete wall 1.5m high which provides a platform just over 11m long by 6m wide. Grooved concrete settings running parallel with the length of the platform suggest the original presence of an arched open-ended covering structure which has since been removed. Forward of the platform was an apron about 3.5m in length at the head of a sloping ramp 8m in length which formed a slipway. The quay could have been employed only at high tide and it may have housed a dinghy or light craft allowing access to the landing craft prior to the beaching process. A mooring post emplacement set into the foreshore behind the southern downstream end of the gridiron comprises the remains of a 0.27 sq m wooden post embedded in a 2.5 sq m concrete block which stands 0.5m proud of the surface; the mass of the block is believed to lie below ground level in order to provide secure purchase. Attached to the mooring post is an iron chain which itself attaches to a large floatable wooden pontoon which is lying in a beached position behind the gridiron. The chain and pontoon, although they may be contemporary with the World War II use of the site, do not directly relate to the gridiron, and are not part of the scheduling. The maintenance site was one of several such sites on the River Dart of which only three now remain in anything like their original form. It was constructed by the USNAAB Dartmouth which was commissioned for preparations for the D-Day invasion of 6th June 1944 and it was part of the range of shore-base and supply facilities constructed before and during the invasion. After D-Day the importance of USNAAB Dartmouth as a base began to wane and the facilities were handed back to the British before the end of 1944. A floatable wooden pontoon and the iron chain which attaches it to a wooden mooring post are excluded from the scheduling, although the post and the ground beneath the chain and pontoon are included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Clamp, A L, Dartmouth and Kingswear during the Second World War 1939-45, (1990), 25-33
Schofield, J, 'Antiquity' in D-Day Sites In England: An Assessment, , Vol. 75, (2001), 77-83

National Grid Reference: SX 87809 54135

Map

Map
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1020912 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 22-Apr-2018 at 11:22:24.

End of official listing