Battle of Newbury 1643

Overview

Heritage Category: Battlefield

List Entry Number: 1000026

Date first listed: 06-Jun-1995

Location Description: NEWBURY

Map

Ordnance survey map of Battle of Newbury 1643
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

Location Description: NEWBURY

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: West Berkshire (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Enborne

District: West Berkshire (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Newbury

District: West Berkshire (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Speen

National Grid Reference: SU 45498 66070

Summary

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Reasons for Designation

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History

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Details

BATTLE OF NEWBURY I 1643



The Civil Wars of the mid seventeenth century were a reflection of profound political, constitutional, religious and social conflict which was expressed in a struggle for control between King and Parliament.

On returning from Gloucester to the capital, a large Parliamentarian army under the Earl of Essex found its path blocked at Newbury by King Charles and an equally strong Royalist army. Since Essex was short of supplies, he had no choice but to take the Royalists on.

The Royalists attacked the defensively positioned Parliamentarians early on 20 September, fighting them from hedge to hedge across Round Hill. The King's troops tried an outflanking move close to the River Kennet but were beaten back. Having fought all day, the two armies separated at nightfall and the Royalists withdrew, short of ammunition, leaving Parliament's army to proceed to London.

The first Battle of Newbury was the best chance the King ever had of winning the Civil War. The mistake of allowing Parliament to occupy Round Hill may have cost him the battle and perhaps, in the end, his life.

In 1643 the now hedgeless slopes of Round Hill were enclosed with hedges crossed by lanes, making a strong defensive position for the Parliamentary soldiers. Further south, where the Royalist cavalry played a major role, the open common has been extensively built over.

AMENITY FEATURES The battlefield north of Round Hill towards the river is attractive countryside, readily accessible and with good viewpoints. Parking in the narrow lane is difficult. The Falkland memorial is on the line of the Royal Army. Although unrelated to the battle, the burial mounds on Wash Common are prominent features.

KEY SOURCES Anon, 1643, 'A true and exact relation of the Battaile', Thomason Tracts E.69(10) Money, W, 1881, The First and Second Battles of Newbury and the siege of Donnington Castle during the Civil War 1643-6

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 27

Legacy System: Battlefields

Sources

Websites
Historic England Battlefield Report, accessed 11-JUN-2015 from https://content.HistoricEngland.org.uk/content/docs/battlefields/newbury.pdf

End of official listing