Battle of Newbury 1643

Overview

Heritage Category:
Battlefield
List Entry Number:
1000026
Date first listed:
06-Jun-1995
Location Description:
NEWBURY

Map

Ordnance survey map of Battle of Newbury 1643
© Crown Copyright and database right 2019. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2019. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

Location Description:
NEWBURY
District:
West Berkshire (Unitary Authority)
Parish:
Enborne
District:
West Berkshire (Unitary Authority)
Parish:
Newbury
District:
West Berkshire (Unitary Authority)
Parish:
Speen
National Grid Reference:
SU 45498 66070

Details

BATTLE OF NEWBURY I 1643



The Civil Wars of the mid seventeenth century were a reflection of profound political, constitutional, religious and social conflict which was expressed in a struggle for control between King and Parliament.

On returning from Gloucester to the capital, a large Parliamentarian army under the Earl of Essex found its path blocked at Newbury by King Charles and an equally strong Royalist army. Since Essex was short of supplies, he had no choice but to take the Royalists on.

The Royalists attacked the defensively positioned Parliamentarians early on 20 September, fighting them from hedge to hedge across Round Hill. The King's troops tried an outflanking move close to the River Kennet but were beaten back. Having fought all day, the two armies separated at nightfall and the Royalists withdrew, short of ammunition, leaving Parliament's army to proceed to London.

The first Battle of Newbury was the best chance the King ever had of winning the Civil War. The mistake of allowing Parliament to occupy Round Hill may have cost him the battle and perhaps, in the end, his life.

In 1643 the now hedgeless slopes of Round Hill were enclosed with hedges crossed by lanes, making a strong defensive position for the Parliamentary soldiers. Further south, where the Royalist cavalry played a major role, the open common has been extensively built over.

AMENITY FEATURES The battlefield north of Round Hill towards the river is attractive countryside, readily accessible and with good viewpoints. Parking in the narrow lane is difficult. The Falkland memorial is on the line of the Royal Army. Although unrelated to the battle, the burial mounds on Wash Common are prominent features.

KEY SOURCES Anon, 1643, 'A true and exact relation of the Battaile', Thomason Tracts E.69(10) Money, W, 1881, The First and Second Battles of Newbury and the siege of Donnington Castle during the Civil War 1643-6

This list entry was subject to a Minor Amendment to the Selected Sources on 10/04/2019

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number:
27
Legacy System:
Battlefields

Sources

Websites
English Heritage Battlefield Report: Battle of Newbury 1643 (Published 1995), accessed 10th April 2019 from https://historicengland.org.uk/content/docs/listing/battlefields/newbury/

Legal

This battlefield is registered within the Register of Historic Battlefields by Historic England for its special historic interest.

End of official listing

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