Settlement 500yds (460m) SE of Cardew Hill
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1007206
Date first listed: 15-Aug-1973
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Carlisle (District Authority)
National Grid Reference: NY 35229 49436
Settlement enclosure, 492m south east of Cardew Hall.
Reasons for Designation
During the earlier Iron Age (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate), others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD). Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period.
The settlement enclosure 492m south east of Cardew Hall is preserved as a cropmark and will contain archaeological deposits relating to its construction, use and abandonment. The monument provides insight into the character of settlement during the Iron Age period.
This record was the subject of a minor enhancement on 01 March 2016. This record has been generated from an "old county number" (OCN) scheduling record. These are monuments that were not reviewed under the Monuments Protection Programme and are some of our oldest designation records.
The monument includes the remains of a settlement enclosure of Iron Age date, situated on a gentle west facing slope overlooking Gill Beck. The enclosure, which is preserved as a cropmark, is sub-rectangular with rounded corners and is surrounded by a ditch. To the south of the enclosure is a second elongated enclosure and a track leads north from the site, both of which are preserved as cropmarks.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: CU 176
Legacy System: RSM - OCN
PastScape Monument No:- 10507
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing