Bowl barrow on Calstone Down, 500m south of Witch Plantation

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1007493

Date first listed: 07-May-1957

Date of most recent amendment: 01-Jul-1994

Map

Ordnance survey map of Bowl barrow on Calstone Down, 500m south of Witch Plantation
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Wiltshire (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Avebury

National Grid Reference: SU 05935 68409

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

A small number of areas in southern England appear to have acted as foci for ceremonial and ritual activity during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age periods. Two of the best known and earliest recognised, with references in the 17th century, are around Avebury and Stonehenge, now jointly designated as a World Heritage Site. In the Avebury area, the henge monument itself, the West Kennet Avenue, the Sanctuary, West Kennet long barrow, Windmill Hill causewayed enclosure and the enigmatic Silbury Hill are well-known. Whilst the other Neolithic long barrows, the many Bronze Age round barrows and other associated sites are less well-known, together they define one of the richest and most varied areas of Neolithic and Bronze Age ceremonial monuments in the country. Bowl barrows, the most numerous form of round barrow, are funerary monuments dating from the Late Neolithic period to the Late Bronze Age, with most examples belonging to the period 2400-1500 BC. They were constructed as earthen or rubble mounds, normally ditched, which covered single or multiple burials. They occur either in isolation or grouped as cemeteries and often acted as a focus for burials in later periods. Often superficially similar, although differing widely in size, they exhibit regional variations in form and a diversity of burial practices. There are over 10,000 surviving bowl barrows recorded nationally and around 320 in the Avebury area. This group of monuments will provide important information on the development of this area during the Late Neolithic and Bronze Age periods. All surviving examples are considered worthy of protection.

Despite having been partially excavated in 1849, the bowl barrow 500m south of Witch Plantation survives well and is a good example of its class. It will contain archaeological and environmental evidence relating to the barrow and the landscape in which it was built.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a bowl barrow located on Calstone Down, 500m south of Witch Plantation, on a south-facing slope overlooking Bishops Cannings Down. The barrow mound has a diameter of 12m and stands up to 1m high. The top of the mound on the north east side has been disturbed by partial excavation of the site by Merewether in 1849. Finds included a primary crouched cremation burial and a collared urn. Surrounding the mound is a quarry ditch from which material was obtained during its construction. This has become partly infilled over the years but survives as an earthwork 3m wide and 0.4m deep.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 21767

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Other
SU 06 NE 117, Royal Commission on Historical Monuments of England, Tumulus north of the Roman road, (1973)
SU06NE693, CAO, Ditched bowl barrow, (1983)

End of official listing