Romano-British settlement at Cragside Wood
- Heritage Category:
- Scheduled Monument
- List Entry Number:
- Date first listed:
- Date of most recent amendment:
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This copy shows the entry on 24-Jan-2021 at 19:40:57.
The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
- Eden (District Authority)
- National Park:
- LAKE DISTRICT
- National Grid Reference:
- NY 52713 21525
Reasons for Designation
In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements
dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non-
defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone
construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also
common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures
were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common.
Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the
settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the
enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard
layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of
the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were
pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two
houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the
settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main
enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be
found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form
and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known.
These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives
throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement
forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common
throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved
earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common,
although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography.
All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be
identified as nationally important.
Despite being partially covered by woodland, the Romano-British settlement at Cragside Wood survives reasonably well. Its earthworks preserve considerable detail of the layout of the site and the monument will facilitate any further study of Romano-British settlement patterns in the area.
The monument includes a Romano-British settlement located at the northern end
of Cragside Wood on a small plateau with a steep decline immediately to the
south. The settlement includes an enclosure of oval form, flattened out at the
eastern end, and measuring approximately 77m north-south by 75m east-west
internally. The enclosure is formed by a bank of earth with a core of
limestone rubble and measures up to 5m wide by 1m high. It is subdivided
internally into eleven sub-rectangular enclosures or stockpens. There is an
entrance on the eastern side from which a sunken trackway leads into the
furthermost enclosure at the monument's western end.
A modern drystone wall crossing the monument is excluded from the scheduling,
although the ground beneath the wall is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
- Legacy System number:
- Legacy System:
RCHME, Westmorland, (1936)
SMR No. 2875, Cumbria SMR, Earthworks in Cragside Wood, Lowther Park, Lowther, (1987)
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing