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Bagley Iron Age defended settlement enclosure and deserted medieval farm

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Bagley Iron Age defended settlement enclosure and deserted medieval farm

List entry Number: 1008468

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Somerset

District: West Somerset

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Luccombe

National Park: EXMOOR

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 28-Jun-1977

Date of most recent amendment: 10-Aug-1994

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 24026

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

During the Iron Age a variety of different types of settlement were constructed and occupied in south-western England. At the top of the settlement hierarchy were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a group of smaller sites, known as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others in less prominent positions. They are generally smaller than the hillforts, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction. Univallate sites have a single bank and ditch, multivallate sites more than one. At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Where excavated, evidence of stone- or timber-built houses has been found within the enclosures, which, in contrast to the hillfort sites, would have been occupied by small communities, perhaps no more than a single family group. Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the settlement pattern, particularly in the upland areas of south-western England, and are integral to any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period. All well-preserved examples are likely to be identified as nationally important.

The village, comprising a small group of houses, gardens, yards, streets, paddocks, often with a green, a manor and a church, and with a community devoted primarily to agriculture, was a significant component of the rural landscape in most areas of medieval England, much as it is today. Villages provided some services to the local community and acted as the main focal point of ecclesiastical, and often of manorial, administration within each parish. Although the sites of many of these villages have been occupied continuously down to the present day, many others declined in size or were abandoned throughout the medieval and post-medieval periods, particularly during the 14th and 15th centuries. As a result over 2000 deserted medieval villages are recorded nationally. The reasons for desertion were varied but often reflected declining economic viability, changes in land use such as enclosure or emparkment, or population fluctuations as a result of widespread epidemics such as the Black Death. As a consequence of their abandonment these villages are frequently undisturbed by later occupation and contain well-preserved archaeological deposits. Because they are a common and long-lived monument type in most parts of England, they provide important information on the diversity of medieval settlement patterns and farming economy between the regions and through time. The deserted sites of Bagley and nearby Sweetworthy form one of the most important groups of medieval farm sites in west Somerset, and their direct association with prehistoric settlement further enhances their importance. The site preserves archaeological deposits relating to settlement activity through from prehistory to the early 19th century.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a prehistoric defended settlement enclosure and an associated deserted medieval farm, situated respectively above and in a small stream valley below Dunkery Hill. The prehistoric enclosure has been much degraded by later agriculture, and is not easily visible, but includes a bank and outer ditch surviving in two stretches, forming a roughly circular enclosure 62m across with an internal area of 0.31ha. The upper (southern) side of the enclosure consists of a bank 0.6m high internally and 0.8m high externally. There is no clear profile of a ditch but the fact that the ground is lower externally suggests the former presence of one. The lower (northern) arc of the enclosure survives as a broad, low bank 0.2m high and a broad outer ditch 0.2m deep. In the centre of the enclosure is a shallow round levelled hollow 14m across, representing the site of a building or inner enclosure. Part of the eastern side of the enclosure, through which a later field hedge-bank ran, no longer survives as an upstanding feature and may have been robbed to provide material for the hedge-bank. The western side, adjacent to the deserted farm, has also been disturbed by clearance and hedge lines. The medieval farm is located immediately below the enclosure on the west, on a small terrace beside a stream, beyond which is a shoulder of land providing shelter. The site consists of earth- and stone- work remains of buildings, enclosures, trackways and field banks. These are flanked on the west by the stream gorge, and on the other sides by the low scarps around the terrace which have been stone faced to form the edges of the fields around the farm. Roughly central to the site are the tumbled ruins of a small cottage, with a large mound in the north corner indicating a collapsed chimney stack. The cottage consists of a small square room 5m by 4m, with indications of a further room to the side. The main room appears to have an entrance facing north downhill beside the chimney, and perhaps one at the back to a small yard. A length of bank on the west suggests an outer wall of a second room or lean-to, of similar size. A low bank forming an apparent room on the east of the cottage is on a slightly different orientation and seems to have been overlain by the cottage and an associated wall, and may represent an earlier phase of the site. It was perhaps reused as a garden or yard beside the cottage. Behind the cottage on the uphill side is a small yard, the west side of which is a stone-faced bank running south as a continuation of the west wall of the main room. Branching off this is a wall curving round to meet the other end of the east room or garden. This latter wall is on a similar orientation to the east room and may have likewise been adapted from an earlier phase. In front of the house to the north and across a small open area or track, is an area of levelled ground by the stream with traces of a building platform, suggesting a barn or other outbuilding. A trackway runs into the site from the south west where it fords the stream above the farm, beside the cottage and yard on the south and east, and to the east of the barn. Here it branches, opening out into former fields on the north-east, and leading north down beside the stream to a ford across a larger east-west stream below the site. Above the track where it runs around the south of the yard is a wall defining a short, narrow space below the scarp at the upper side of the terrace. This may have been a linhay, set into the slope with access to the upper storey from the higher ground at the back. Outside this wall and perhaps overlain by it is a lower bank which appears to be the footings of an earlier building in the same location. This is on the same orientation as the possible earlier phase of cottage and yard. To the east of this, the walled scarps join to form a narrow triangular piece of land in the top corner of the terrace. This has a bank across its end and earthworks within suggesting a garden plot or possibly a further early building. There is access from the terrace to the top of the scarp between this and the linhay. Field walls and banks associated with the site have largely been broken down by modern agricultural improvement. The manor of 'Bagelie' is recorded among the lands of Roger de Corcelle in the Domesday survey of 1086, and the direct association with an Iron Age enclosure is an indication of continuous settlement on the site from prehistoric times. This continuity of settlement, with a slight shift downhill at some point between prehistoric and medieval times, is attested by other sites in the area. The farm at Bagley is last recorded on a map of 1840, and when next mapped in 1890 it is shown as a ruin.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Aston, M, 'Proc. Soms. Arch. & Nat. Hist. Soc.' in Deserted Farmsteads on Exmoor and the Lay Subsidy of 1327 ..., (1983), 83
Aston, M, 'Proc. Soms. Arch. & Nat. Hist. Soc.' in Deserted Farmsteads on Exmoor and the Lay Subsidy of 1327 ..., (1983), 71-104

National Grid Reference: SS 88227 42569

Map

Map
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End of official listing