Gibbie's Knowe defended settlement and later rectangular building

Overview

Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1014079

Date first listed: 29-Apr-1996

Map

Ordnance survey map of Gibbie's Knowe defended settlement and later rectangular building
© Crown Copyright and database right 2018. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
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Location

The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Northumberland (Unitary Authority)

Parish: Kielder

National Grid Reference: NY 64745 95077

Summary

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

During the mid-prehistoric period (seventh to fifth centuries BC) a variety of different types of defensive settlements began to be constructed and occupied in the northern uplands of England. The most obvious sites were hillforts built in prominent locations. In addition to these a range of smaller sites, sometimes with an enclosed area of less than 1ha and defined as defended settlements, were also constructed. Some of these were located on hilltops, others are found in less prominent positions. The enclosing defences were of earthen construction, some sites having a single bank and ditch (univallate), others having more than one (multivallate). At some sites these earthen ramparts represent a second phase of defence, the first having been a timber fence or palisade. Within the enclosure a number of stone or timber-built round houses were occupied by the inhabitants. Stock may also have been kept in these houses, especially during the cold winter months, or in enclosed yards outside them. The communities occupying these sites were probably single family groups, the defended settlements being used as farmsteads. Construction and use of this type of site extended over several centuries, possibly through to the early Romano-British period (mid to late first century AD). Defended settlements are a rare monument type. They were an important element of the later prehistoric settlement pattern of the northern uplands and are important for any study of the developing use of fortified settlements during this period. All well-preserved examples are believed to be of national importance.

Gibbie's Knowe defended settlement is well preserved and retains significant archaeological deposits. It will add greatly to any study of the wider prehistoric settlement pattern at this time.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a defended settlement of Iron Age date situated on a slope above the Kielder Burn to the north. The enclosure, which is roughly D-shaped, measures a maximum of 75m east to west by 63m north to south within a single rampart. The rampart, constructed mainly of stone with turf facing, is on average 4m wide and stands to a maximum height of 2.2m. There are two entrances through the walls of the enclosure, the larger one in the eastern side is up to 8m wide and the smaller on the south side is 3m wide. The latter entrance is flanked by large boulders. A later field wall crosses the monument from north to south immediately west of the large entrance, and the footings of a later rectangular building 15m by 4m are attached to the enclosure immediately to the north of the eastern entrance. These features are included in the scheduling as their removal may damage important archaeological deposits.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Legacy

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 25191

Legacy System: RSM

Sources

Books and journals
MacLaughlan, H, Additional Notes on Roman Roads in Northumberland, (1867), 63
Hogg, A H A, 'Proc Soc Antiq Ncle 4 ser 11' in A New List Of Native Sites In Northumberland, (1950), 166
Jobey, G, 'Archaeologia Aeliana' in Hill Forts and Settlements in Northumberland, (1965), 62
Other
NY 69 NW 04,

End of official listing