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Roman period native enclosed settlement 480m north of Sutherland Bridge

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Roman period native enclosed settlement 480m north of Sutherland Bridge

List entry Number: 1014500

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: Northumberland

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Kirknewton

National Park: NORTHUMBERLAND

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 22-May-1996

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 24632

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

The settlement 480m north of Sutherland Bridge is a very well preserved example of a Roman period native settlement. The site is situated within an area of clustered archaeological sites of very high quality and forms part of a wider archaeological landscape. It will contribute significantly to the study of the wider settlement pattern during this period.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes an enclosed native settlement and associated hut circles and the remains of a field bank dating to the Roman period. It is situated 480m north of Sutherland Bridge, at the foot of the south east slope of Black Haggs Rigg, on a raised river terrace above the College Burn. It is one of a number of broadly contemporary sites occupying a similar position on the valley floor of the College Burn. The monument consists of two scooped enclosures containing the remains of prehistoric buildings and courtyards. The foundations of a further two prehistoric buildings lie outside the enclosures to the west, and the remains of contemporary field banks survive to the east. The settlement is situated on a broad, level platform of raised ground formed by an old river terrace. It is overlooked by the steep slopes of Black Haggs Rigg to the west and Hare Law to the east. The settlement consists of two conjoined enclosures. The main enclosure is sub-circular and encloses an area 30m by 30m. The enclosure banks are constructed of earth and stone and are up to 5.5m wide and 1m high. There is an entrance, 2.9m wide, in the east side facing directly down towards the College Burn. The rear of the enclosure is scooped into the hillside to a depth of 4m. A broad, level platform, c.8m by 8m, is scooped into the south west corner of the enclosure. The circular stone foundations of a prehistoric house, with an internal diameter of 5.5m, lie near the centre of the enclosure. The entrance, in the east side, opens onto a scooped courtyard. A secondary enclosure has been added to the southern wall of the original site. It has internal dimensions of 20m by 12.5m and it is enclosed by stone and earth banks up to 4m wide and 0.5m high. There is an entrance in the north east corner of the enclosure and there are two further breaks in the bank to the south east. The rear of the enclosure is scooped into the hillside to a depth of 1.5m. The remains of at least two circular prehistoric buildings, with internal diameters of 2m, are situated outside the enclosure to the west. The remains of field walls survive immediately to the east of the enclosures. These consist of two lengths of wall, up to 4.5m wide and 0.5m high. One section extends from the entrance of the main enclosure, northwards, for a length of c.17m, the other runs parallel to the east side of the secondary enclosure and then turns eastwards at the entrance area of the two enclosures to run for the entire length of the level area of the river terrace, a distance of c.50m.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Other
Topping, P, A Survey of College Valley, North Northumberland, 1981, BA Dissertation, University of Durham

National Grid Reference: NT 88892 25436

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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This copy shows the entry on 21-Nov-2017 at 04:20:32.

End of official listing