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Lynestead medieval pele tower, early post-medieval farmstead and an associated corn drying kiln

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Lynestead medieval pele tower, early post-medieval farmstead and an associated corn drying kiln

List entry Number: 1016086

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County: Cumbria

District: Carlisle

District Type: District Authority

Parish: Bewcastle

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 24-Sep-1997

Date of most recent amendment: Not applicable to this List entry.

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 27779

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Tower houses are a type of defensible house particularly characteristic of the borderlands of England and Scotland. Virtually every parish had at least one of these buildings. At many sites the tower comprised only one element of a larger house, with at least one wing being attached to it. These wings provided further domestic accommodation, frequently including a large hall. If it was incorporated within a larger domestic residence, the tower itself could retain its defensible qualities and could be shut off from the rest of the house in times of trouble. Tower houses were being constructed and used from at least the 13th century to the end of the 16th century. They provided prestigious defended houses permanently occupied by the wealthier or aristocratic members of society. As such they were important centres of medieval life. The need for such secure buildings relates to the unsettled and frequently war-like conditions which prevailed in the Borders throughout much of the medieval period. Around 200 examples of tower houses have been identified of which over half were elements of larger houses. All surviving tower houses retaining significant medieval remains will normally be identified as nationally important.

Lynestead medieval pele tower, early post-medieval farmstead and associated corn drying kiln survives in fair condition. The monument is a rare example of the juxtaposition of a pele tower and early post-medieval farmstead, and it will add greatly to our knowledge and understanding of the wider border settlement and economy during the medieval and early post-medieval periods.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes the earthworks and buried remains of Lynestead medieval pele tower, an early post-medieval farmstead and an associated corn drying kiln. `Pele' is an alternative term to `tower' and `pele towers' are members of the wider family of defensive buildings in the northern borderlands which also include tower houses and bastles. It is located on relatively flat ground immediately to the north west of the 19th-century house known as Lynestead. The remains of the pele tower include turf-covered foundations measuring approximately 11.5m by 11m and up to 0.5m high with walls up to 2m thick. A short distance to the north east of the pele are the turf-covered foundations of an early post-medieval farmstead measuring c.14m by 6m and up to 0.3m high with its long axis aligned north east-south west. Associated with the farmstead, and lying a short distance to the south east, is a corn drying kiln which now survives as an irregularly shaped turf-covered mound up to 0.8m high with maximum dimensions of 7m by 6m. The presence of the kiln indicates the existence of small scale arable farming in the area during the early post- medieval period. Here then is a medieval pele tower which was superseded by a small hill farm which, in turn, was abandoned before 1854 when the present Lynestead cottage was built. All fenceposts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Ramm, H G , Shielings and Bastles, (1970), 51

National Grid Reference: NY 54673 78434

Map

Map
© Crown Copyright and database right 2017. All rights reserved. Ordnance Survey Licence number 100024900.
© British Crown and SeaZone Solutions Limited 2017. All rights reserved. Licence number 102006.006.
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The above map is for quick reference purposes only and may not be to scale. For a copy of the full scale map, please see the attached PDF - 1016086 .pdf

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This copy shows the entry on 22-Nov-2017 at 11:51:28.

End of official listing