Two rectilinear enclosed settlements, south of Castle Street


Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument

List Entry Number: 1020703

Date first listed: 24-Jun-1970

Date of most recent amendment: 05-Jul-2002


Ordnance survey map of Two rectilinear enclosed settlements, south of Castle Street
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

District: Newcastle upon Tyne (Metropolitan Authority)

Parish: Hazlerigg

National Grid Reference: NZ 23387 71408, NZ 23424 71704


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

In Cumbria and Northumberland several distinctive types of native settlements dating to the Roman period have been identified. The majority were small, non- defensive, enclosed homesteads or farms. In many areas they were of stone construction, although in the coastal lowlands timber-built variants were also common. In much of Northumberland, especially in the Cheviots, the enclosures were curvilinear in form. Further south a rectangular form was more common. Elsewhere, especially near the Scottish border, another type occurs where the settlement enclosure was `scooped' into the hillslope. Frequently the enclosures reveal a regularity and similarity of internal layout. The standard layout included one or more stone round-houses situated towards the rear of the enclosure, facing the single entranceway. In front of the houses were pathways and small enclosed yards. Homesteads normally had only one or two houses, but larger enclosures could contain as many as six. At some sites the settlement appears to have grown, often with houses spilling out of the main enclosure and clustered around it. At these sites up to 30 houses may be found. In the Cumbrian uplands the settlements were of less regimented form and unenclosed clusters of houses of broadly contemporary date are also known. These homesteads were being constructed and used by non-Roman natives throughout the period of the Roman occupation. Their origins lie in settlement forms developed before the arrival of the Romans. These homesteads are common throughout the uplands where they frequently survive as well-preserved earthworks. In lowland coastal areas they were also originally common, although there they can frequently only be located through aerial photography. All homestead sites which survive substantially intact will normally be identified as nationally important.

Despite disturbance and the levelling of all upstanding remains, significant information about the date and form of construction of the settlement at Hazlerigg will survive. Important archaeological deposits will survive below the present ground surface, which will reveal the date and evolution of the settlement and the form of its component structures. Important evidence for the nature and duration of occupation will survive within the settlement areas and the internal floor areas of the hut circles. Evidence for earlier land use and the contemporary environment and economy will be preserved within the buried ditches and other subsoil features. Overall the site will contribute to further study of the late Iron Age and Romano-British settlement patterns in this area.


Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.


The monument includes two rectangular enclosured settlements, visible as crop marks, situated in an arable field immediately to the south of a housing estate towards the southern fringe of Hazlerigg. They are located on heavy clay loams and boulder clay overlying Upper Carboniferous deposits. Their similarity to comparable excavated sites in the north east indicates that they are of late Iron Age or Romano-British date. Further settlement remains, including hut circles, lying outside the enclosures are also included. These remains are in two separate areas of protection. The northern of the two settlements is sub-square in plan, with rounded corners and includes two close set ditches. The outer of the two ditches encloses an area 75m by 75m, with an inner ditch set 10m inside it. The site has been investigated by geophysical survey and anomalies interpreted as the remains of two hut circles lie in close proximity to the enclosure. The first, immediately to the north of the northern side of the enclosure, measures 16m in diameter. The second, 30m to the south east of the south eastern corner of the enclosure, measures 14m in diameter. The second of the two enclosured settlements is situated 140m to the south of the northern settlement, and is trapezoidal in plan, orientated north west to south east, and is thought to be defined by a single ditch. Each of the sides of the enclosure measure 60m, except for western side, which measures 50m. The area within and immediately around the enclosure retains the complex remains of a palimpsest of settlement activity, evidenced as geophysical anomalies. The remains of settlement activity include a series of seven intercutting hut circles, a pair of intercutting hut circles, a lone hut circle, a ditch and a curvilinear ditch. Five of the seven intercutting hut circles are located within the trapezoidal enclosure, with the remaining two, either cutting or cut by the northern side of the enclosure. The hut circles range from 7m to 20m in diameter and are thought largely to be non-contemporaneous. The pair of intercutting hut circles are located approximately 16m to the west of the western side of the trapezoidal enclosure. The larger of the two measures 14m in diameter, and the smaller, 10m in diameter. The lone hut circle is located 7m to the east of the eastern side of the trapezoidal enclosure and measures 10m in diameter. The ditch is orientated north to south, begins 14m from the north west corner of the trapezoidal enclosure and continues north for 30m. The curvilinear ditch is orientated east to west, begins 70m from the north east corner of the trapezoidal enclosure and continues west for 50m. All fence posts are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract.


The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System number: 34619

Legacy System: RSM


Located in Tyne and Wear SMR, 1138069,
Located in Tyne and Wear SMR, 1138070,
Located in Tyne and Wear SMR, 1138071,
Located in Tyne and Wear SMR, 1138072,
Located in Tyne and Wear SMR, 1138074,
McCord, N. and Jobey, G., Notes on Air Reconnaisance in Northumberland and Durham, 1968,
Timescape Archaeological Surveys, Newcastle Great Park (Cell C) Geophysical Report Phase 4, (2000)

End of official listing