Later prehistoric to Romano-British multiple enclosure fort and prehistoric round barrow, 350m south east of Bogee Farm
Heritage Category: Scheduled Monument
List Entry Number: 1021221
Date first listed: 12-Nov-2003
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The building or site itself may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.
District: Cornwall (Unitary Authority)
Parish: St. Issey
National Grid Reference: SW 90989 69226
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
Reasons for Designation
Multiple enclosure forts comprise an inner and one or more outer enclosed
areas, together measuring up to c.10ha, and defined by sub-circular or sub-
rectangular earthworks spaced at intervals which exceed 15m; the inner
enclosure is usually entirely surrounded by a bank and ditch. The forts date
mainly to the Late Iron Age (350 BC-c.AD 50) and in England usually occur in
the south west. Most are sited on hillslopes overlooked by higher ground near
a water supply, and many were apparently used for periods of up to 250 years.
The outer enclosures of the forts are usually interpreted as areas set aside
for the containment of livestock, whilst the inner enclosures are generally
thought to have been the focus of occupation.
The earthworks usually include a bank with an outer V-shaped ditch 1m-3m deep.
Entrances are generally single gaps through each line of defence, often
aligned to create a passage from the outer to the inner enclosure, although
there are a few examples where entrances through successive earthworks are not
in alignment. Occasionally the interval between the gaps is marked by inturned
ramparts or low banks and ditches, while the outer entrance may be screened by
a short length of earthwork. Excavations within the inner enclosures have
revealed a range of buildings and structures, including circular structures,
hearths, ovens and cobbled surfaces as well as occasional small pits and large
depressions which may have functioned as watering holes.
Multiple enclosure forts are relatively rare with only around 75 examples
recorded in England, mostly in Devon and Cornwall. Outside these counties
their distribution becomes increasingly scattered and the form and
construction methods more varied. They are important for the study of
settlement and stock management in the later prehistoric period, and most
well-preserved examples will be identified as being of national importance.
Despite partial reduction and modification of its enclosing banks, and filling or silting of their external ditches, the multiple enclosure fort and prehistoric round barrow 350m south east of Bogee Farm survive comparatively well. The old land surfaces underlying the ramparts, and remains of any structures or other deposits associated with these and with the upstanding earthworks, will also survive. The unusual rectilinear plan of the fort may provide important information on the impact of Roman influence on settlement in Cornwall. The close association with an earlier round barrow is rare, and will contribute to our understanding of the development of the prehistoric landscape through time.
Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.
The scheduling includes a multiple enclosure fort of the later prehistoric
to Roman period type, and a prehistoric round barrow, situated on near
level ground on a ridge north of St Columb Major. The round barrow is
associated with others beyond this scheduling, being an outlier of a wider
hill and ridge-top barrow cemetery.
The multiple enclosure fort has a sub-rectangular outer enclosure, and a roughly square inner enclosure on the north west side of this. Overall, the fort measures up to approximately 190m north east-south west by 130m north west-south east. The two enclosing ramparts are roughly concentric and are fairly widely spaced, being around 30m-50m apart. Some Roman finds are recorded, and evidence from elsewhere in Cornwall suggests the straight-sided layout of the fort may be indicative of occupation during that period.
The outer enclosure has a surrounding rampart of earth, with much clay, quartz and shillet (local stone) rubble. Around the south and east sides this has been modified by ploughing where it is visible on aerial photographs, and appears on the ground as a low earthwork or stony spread approximately 15m wide. To the west the rampart is partly truncated and faced with stone to form a modern boundary bank up to approximately 3.5m wide and 2.5m high, and a similar modification may have taken place on the north side. A linear depression up to 6m wide and 0.5m deep runs along the outside of the bank on the west. This is considered to be a partly buried external ditch. Comparison with other forts indicates that the ditch extends around the remainder of the outer rampart. Old maps show a trackway entering the fort at its south west corner, possibly indicating the original entrance point.
The northern rampart of the fort's inner enclosure is modified to form part of a boundary bank. The rampart around the three other sides of this enclosure can be seen on aerial photographs, and forms a spread earthwork approximately 16m wide and up to 0.5m high, with a stony, clay fabric resembling that of the outer rampart. As with other similar sites, this rampart will have a buried ditch surrounding it. The entrance position is unknown. The interior of this enclosure is around 40m-50m across, and has a redder soil than the outer enclosure and the surrounding ground.
The round barrow, south of the fort, measures 17m in diameter. It has a mound of earth and small rubble shillet and quartz with a gently curving profile, rising from a low spread edge to a height of around 0.4m. There is no evidence for an external ditch.
The modern fencing and overhead line with pole are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.
MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.
The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.
Legacy System number: 32984
Legacy System: RSM
Books and journals
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 25, 140
Padel, O J, Cornish placename elements, (1985), 50-54
Cowling, P to Parkes, C, (2003)
Dudley, D, Notes on Ordnance Survey 6" Map, (1954)
MS at RIC library, Truro. Date approx, Henderson, C, Notebooks of Parochial Antiquities, Notebooks of Parochial Antiquities, (1920)
SW 96 NW 45, Quinnell, NV, Ordnance Survey Index Card, (1977)
Title: Cornwall Mapping Project Source Date: 1995 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1880 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: Date approx.
Title: Ordnance Survey 1:2500 Map Source Date: 1908 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: Date approx.
Title: Ordnance Survey Index Card Source Date: 1977 Author: Publisher: Surveyor: SW 96 NW 6
Title: St Issey Tithe Apportionment Source Date: 1841 Author: Publisher: Surveyor:
This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Digital, Culture, Media and Sport.
End of official listing