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Sections of linear boundary dyke in Frendal Dale, Tun Dale, and Great Plantation, between Millington and Huggate Wolds

List Entry Summary

This monument is scheduled under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 as amended as it appears to the Secretary of State to be of national importance. This entry is a copy, the original is held by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.

Name: Sections of linear boundary dyke in Frendal Dale, Tun Dale, and Great Plantation, between Millington and Huggate Wolds

List entry Number: 1015561

Location

The monument may lie within the boundary of more than one authority.

County:

District: East Riding of Yorkshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Huggate

County:

District: East Riding of Yorkshire

District Type: Unitary Authority

Parish: Millington

National Park: Not applicable to this List entry.

Grade: Not applicable to this List entry.

Date first scheduled: 17-Dec-1929

Date of most recent amendment: 18-Apr-1997

Legacy System Information

The contents of this record have been generated from a legacy data system.

Legacy System: RSM

UID: 26575

Asset Groupings

This list entry does not comprise part of an Asset Grouping. Asset Groupings are not part of the official record but are added later for information.

List entry Description

Summary of Monument

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Reasons for Designation

Linear boundaries are substantial earthwork features comprising single or multiple ditches and banks which may extend over distances varying between less than 1km to over 10km. They survive as earthworks or as linear features visible as cropmarks on aerial photographs or as a combination of both. The evidence of excavation and study of associated monuments demonstrate that their construction spans the millennium from the Middle Bronze Age, although they may have been re-used later. The scale of many linear boundaries has been taken to indicate that they were constructed by large social groups and were used to mark important boundaries in the landscape; their impressive scale displaying the corporate prestige of their builders. They would have been powerful symbols, often with religious associations, used to define and order the territorial holdings of those groups who constructed them. Linear earthworks are of considerable importance for the analysis of settlement and land use in the Bronze Age; all well preserved examples will normally merit statutory protection.

The monument is part of a very extensive and important system of linear boundary dykes in this area of the Yorkshire Wolds, dating back to the Bronze Age. It contains well preserved sections, and is closely associated with another adjacent complex of multiple banks and ditches, which together form an integral system of boundary and defensive earthworks in this region. As such it offers important insights into ancient land use and territorial divisions for social, ritual and agricultural purposes in this area of the Yorkshire Wolds.

History

Legacy Record - This information may be included in the List Entry Details.

Details

The monument includes a long section of Bronze Age linear boundary bank and ditch (also known as a dyke), 1.6km in total length, commencing from the north west side of the the head of Frendal Dale, Huggate Pasture, continuing in a south west direction along the base of Frendal Dale, turning due north into Tun Dale through Great Planation, and terminating in Greenwick Dale to the north. Lying close to an ancient trackway on the western side of the Wolds, the surviving part of which forms the present-day Wolds Way, the monument is part of a particularly elaborate complex of multiple dykes on Huggate Pasture, single components of which run either along the top of the escarpment, or part the way down the sides of the intervening dry valley systems of Frendal Dale and Tun Dale, south in the direction of Pasture Dale, Millington Dale and Cow Moor, or north and west towards Millington Wold and Millington Lings, linking with other boundary dykes in those areas. These dykes were used to enhance the natural topographical barriers of spurs and escarpments between valleys, with additional physical barriers of banks and ditches. Natural conduits along the floors of dry valleys were then `blocked' by other bank and ditch systems to control access. Well preserved sections of these linear boundaries are the subject of separate schedulings, and in some cases, adjacent monuments may physically abut. This elaborate complex of Wolds boundary earthworks is one of the best preserved remnants of the original more extensive systems recorded and mapped by early antiquarians such as J R Mortimer in the 19th century. Excavations and observation of spatial relationships with other earthworks of known date demonstrate this Wolds complex of earthworks to have originated in the later Bronze Age, with several subsequent phases of elaboration and augmentation. The monument also forms part of a broadly related and extensive complex of multi-period prehistoric earthworks, including bowl barrows, barrow cemeteries, linear bank and ditch systems, trackways and enclosures dispersed across Huggate and Warter Wolds, and Huggate and Millington Pastures. At its north eastern end, the monument links up with an adjacent section of single bank and ditch which runs to the north of and parallel with a 200m long complex of four banks and three ditches. These adjacent features are the subject of separate schedulings. For much of its 700m length along the northern end of Frendal Dale, this section of boundary dyke is not as well preserved as the other parts of the same monument in Tun Dale, or adjacent and related linear monuments in Frendal Dale, being broken or discontinuous in places, low and not clearly defined. The bank material has been spread by effects of erosion and possibly by later use of the bank as a trackway, leaving the bank visible as a low terrace on the north of valley side, just above the floor. Where it is visible, the monument broadly conforms to the line of the dry valley floor of Frendal Dale leading south west until it meets the junction with Tun Dale, where it makes a `U' turn due north into Tun Dale. Towards this junction with Tun Dale, the faint lines of the infilled ditch can just be seen lying to the south, then west of the bank, although it is scarcely visible before this point, being infilled by hillwash. Towards its southern end the dyke is better preserved and is up to 4m wide at the base, and between 0.5m and 1m in height. At the junction of the two dry valleys, there is a short additional fork-ended or `V' shaped branch of dyke at right angles to the monument, which connects the lower arm of the dyke system lying on the east side of this valley - the subject of a separate scheduling - with the linear boundary bank and ditch described here. The junction is formed of two separate low banks forming a `V' shape joining into a single bank and ditch which then climbs the eastern side of the valley up the edge of the escarpment here, following an east-west alignment, to link with the adjacent dyke which is also the subject of a separate scheduling, itself running south along Frendal Dale towards Millington Pasture. There is not, however, a clearly defined relationship between the boundary bank in the valley floor and the fork-ended section associated with it, the `V' shaped section of banks lose their definition before they merge with the main parent section of linear here. The southern side of the fork end is well defined, with the bank up to 4m wide at base and 1m-1.25m across the flat, worn top and around 1m-1.25m high. The ditch lies to the south side of the bank, and is `U' shaped and up to 2m wide. The main section of single bank and ditch broadly keep the same dimensions described for the southern side of the fork. The northerly side of the fork is far less well defined, being no more than around 0.5m-0.75m high and 4m wide. The next 300m long section of boundary bank and ditch leading from the `U' turn directly north into Tun Dale is better defined, following the line of the dry valley here and conforming to the edge of the approximately north-south aligned spur of upland leading back into Huggate Wold to the north. Here the modern fence lines follows the outer edge of the ditch, which lies to the east of the bank, between the edge of the hillside and the bank, and has, in places, accumulated hillwash resulting in the appearance of a second bank. This next section of bank running north into Tun Dale varies in height and width, and is considerably better preserved towards the southern end of Tun Dale than it is towards the north where it passes through Great Plantation. This southern portion is from 0.75m up to 1.5m high and up to 4m wide. A modern trackway leading from the junction of Frendal Dale and Tun Dale north into Great Plantation, follows the line of the monument, and in places converges with and overlies the bank, giving it a broad and flattened appearance. The ditch, lying between the bank to the west and the dry valley side to the east, is `U' shaped and shallow, and in places is up to 3m wide. The modern fence has been situated along its outer edge. There is a 60m section where both bank and ditch are not clearly visible, probably owing to plantation activity in the past. For much of its remaining 600m length through Great Plantation, the bank is very low and worn, particularly in the sections where it is overlain by the modern woodland path. To the western side of the bank and path, the valley side climbs steeply up again towards Millington Wold. The ditch is broad and shallow, up to 3m wide and around 0.3m-0.5m deep at most. The bank appears up to 1m in height in places, particularly where it is better preserved in sections along its eastern boundary with the ditch, although its western side is ill-defined owing to the presence of the trackway here. As the monument progresses towards its northern end, it becomes more poorly defined. Modern post and wire fences and animal feed and water dispensers are excluded from the scheduling, although the ground beneath them is included.

MAP EXTRACT The site of the monument is shown on the attached map extract. It includes a 2 metre boundary around the archaeological features, considered to be essential for the monument's support and preservation.

Selected Sources

Books and journals
Mortimer, J R , Forty Years Researches in British and Saxon Burial Mounds of East Yorkshire, (1905), 365-380
Dent, J, 'Archaeological Journal' in The Yorkshire Dykes, (1984), 32-33
Dent, J, 'Archaeological Journal' in The Yorkshire Dykes, (1984), 32-33
Halkon, P, 'Prehistory Research Section Bulletin' in The Huggate Dykes, , Vol. 30, (1993), 10
Manby, T, 'Current Archaeology' in The Yorkshire Dykes, , Vol. 67, (1979), 233
Other
Humberside SMR, Sites and Monuments Records Sheet, (1994)
Humberside SMR, Sites and Monuments Records Sheet, (1994)

National Grid Reference: SE 85386 55518

Map

Map
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End of official listing